Chapter 16

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# Chapter 16 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Chapter 16. States of Matter. Sec. 1: Kinetic Theory. Kinetic Theory —an explanation of how particles in matter behave. There are 3 assumptions of kinetic theory: All matter is made of small particles These particles are in constant motion

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### Chapter 16

States of Matter

Sec. 1: Kinetic Theory
• Kinetic Theory—an explanation of how particles in matter behave. There are 3 assumptions of kinetic theory:
• All matter is made of small particles
• These particles are in constant motion
• The particles collide with each other and the walls of their container.
Solid State
• The particles of a solid are closely packed together.
• Most solids have a specific geometric arrangement.
• You can tell the chemical and physical properties of a solid based on the type of arrangement that a solid forms.
• Solids have a definite shape and volume.
Liquid State
• Liquids form at a melting point—the temp. that a solid begins to liquefy.
• Particles in a liquid have more kinetic energy than in a solid—they are moving faster.
• These particles can slide past each other allowing liquids to flow and take the shape of their container.
• Liquids have a definite volume, but no definite shape.
Gas State
• Particles in a gas have more kinetic energy than in a liquid.
• A liquid becomes a gas through vaporization or evaporation.
• Gas particles have enough kinetic energy to overcome the attractions between them.
• Gases have no definite shape or volume.
• They can spread apart to fill the container they are in.
• Diffusion—the spreading out of particles throughout a volume until they are uniformly distributed.
Plasma State
• Plasma is the most common state of matter in the universe.
• Plasma—matter consisting of positive and negative particles at very high temperatures.
• When gases get very hot, the faster the particles move, and the greater the force is when they collide.
• This forces the electrons to be pulled off.
• All stars (including the sun) consist of plasma.
• Plasma is also found in lightning, neon light tubes, and auroras.
Expansion of Matter
• As the temperature of particles increases, the particles move faster and separate.
• The separation of particles causes the whole object to expand.
• Thermal Expansion—an increase in the size of a substance when temperature increases.
• Examples:
• Solid: Expansion joints in sidewalks
• Liquid: Thermometer
• Gas: Hot air balloon
Water: The Exception
• Water is an exception to thermal expansion because liquid water expands as it is cooled into a solid.
• Water molecules are unusual because they have highly positive areas and highly negative areas.
• As the molecules move closer, the unlike charges are attracted.
• This causes some empty spaces in the structure.
• The empty space in ice is larger than in liquid water.
Solid or Liquid?
• Some substances have unusual behavior.
• They have properties of both solids and liquids.
• Amorphous solids—solids that lack the ordered structure found in crystals.
• Examples: Glass and plastic
• Liquid Crystals—start to flow as they melt, but do not lose their ordered arrangement completely
• Examples: Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD) in watches, calculators, computers, and TVs.
Buoyancy
Sec. 2: Properties of Fluids
• Buoyancy—the ability of a fluid (liquid or gas) to exert an upward force on an object immersed in it.
• This is what causes ships to float.
• Archimedes’ Principle—the buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object.
• An object will float if its density is

less than the density of the fluid it

is placed in.

Pascal’s Principle
• Pressure—force exerted per unit area
• Pressure = Force/Area P = F/A
• Pascal’s Principle—pressure applied to a fluid is transmitted throughout the fluid.
• Example: you squeeze 1 end of a toothpaste tube, toothpaste comes out the other end.
Bernoulli’s Principle
• Bernoulli’s principle describes how people were able to build a machine that can fly.
• Bernoulli’s Principle—as the velocity of a fluid increases, the pressure exerted by the fluid decreases.
• Airplane wings were designed to reduce pressure above the wings.
Fluid Flow
• Viscosity—a resistance to flow by a liquid.
• Example: Take syrup out of the fridge, pour it, and it flows slowly; heat it up, and it flows faster.
• Cold syrup has high viscosity; warm syrup has low viscosity.
• A rise in temp. increases the movement of particles in any substance.
Sec 3: Behavior of Gases
• Boyle’s Law—when volume is decreased, pressure is increased (and vice versa) as long as temperature is constant.
• The equation for Boyle’s Law is
• P1V1 = P2V2
• The subscript 1 represents initial pressure and volume, and the 2 represents final P & V.
• The unit for pressure is pascals & the unit for volume is liters.
The Pressure-Temperature Law
• As temperature increases, the pressure increases too (and vice versa)
• This is why you should keep pressurized spray canisters away from heat.
Charles’s Law
• Charles’s Law—the volume of a gas increases with increasing temperature (and vice versa)
• The equation for Charles’s Law is
• V1 = V2

T1 T2

• Again, 1 is initial, and 2 is final.