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Chapter 16. States of Matter. Sec. 1: Kinetic Theory. Kinetic Theory —an explanation of how particles in matter behave. There are 3 assumptions of kinetic theory: All matter is made of small particles These particles are in constant motion

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chapter 16

Chapter 16

States of Matter

sec 1 kinetic theory
Sec. 1: Kinetic Theory
  • Kinetic Theory—an explanation of how particles in matter behave. There are 3 assumptions of kinetic theory:
      • All matter is made of small particles
      • These particles are in constant motion
      • The particles collide with each other and the walls of their container.
solid state
Solid State
  • The particles of a solid are closely packed together.
  • Most solids have a specific geometric arrangement.
  • You can tell the chemical and physical properties of a solid based on the type of arrangement that a solid forms.
  • Solids have a definite shape and volume.
liquid state
Liquid State
  • Liquids form at a melting point—the temp. that a solid begins to liquefy.
  • Particles in a liquid have more kinetic energy than in a solid—they are moving faster.
  • These particles can slide past each other allowing liquids to flow and take the shape of their container.
  • Liquids have a definite volume, but no definite shape.
gas state
Gas State
  • Particles in a gas have more kinetic energy than in a liquid.
  • A liquid becomes a gas through vaporization or evaporation.
  • Gas particles have enough kinetic energy to overcome the attractions between them.
  • Gases have no definite shape or volume.
  • They can spread apart to fill the container they are in.
  • Diffusion—the spreading out of particles throughout a volume until they are uniformly distributed.
plasma state
Plasma State
  • Plasma is the most common state of matter in the universe.
  • Plasma—matter consisting of positive and negative particles at very high temperatures.
  • When gases get very hot, the faster the particles move, and the greater the force is when they collide.
  • This forces the electrons to be pulled off.
  • All stars (including the sun) consist of plasma.
  • Plasma is also found in lightning, neon light tubes, and auroras.
expansion of matter
Expansion of Matter
  • As the temperature of particles increases, the particles move faster and separate.
  • The separation of particles causes the whole object to expand.
  • Thermal Expansion—an increase in the size of a substance when temperature increases.
    • Examples:
      • Solid: Expansion joints in sidewalks
      • Liquid: Thermometer
      • Gas: Hot air balloon
water the exception
Water: The Exception
  • Water is an exception to thermal expansion because liquid water expands as it is cooled into a solid.
  • Water molecules are unusual because they have highly positive areas and highly negative areas.
  • As the molecules move closer, the unlike charges are attracted.
  • This causes some empty spaces in the structure.
  • The empty space in ice is larger than in liquid water.
solid or liquid
Solid or Liquid?
  • Some substances have unusual behavior.
  • They have properties of both solids and liquids.
  • Amorphous solids—solids that lack the ordered structure found in crystals.
    • Examples: Glass and plastic
  • Liquid Crystals—start to flow as they melt, but do not lose their ordered arrangement completely
    • Examples: Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD) in watches, calculators, computers, and TVs.
buoyancy
Buoyancy
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hkT3ulsGWyA&feature=PlayList&p=087CE258DB85E875&index=8
sec 2 properties of fluids
Sec. 2: Properties of Fluids
  • Buoyancy—the ability of a fluid (liquid or gas) to exert an upward force on an object immersed in it.
    • This is what causes ships to float.
  • Archimedes’ Principle—the buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object.
  • An object will float if its density is

less than the density of the fluid it

is placed in.

pascal s principle
Pascal’s Principle
  • Pressure—force exerted per unit area
    • Pressure = Force/Area P = F/A
  • Pascal’s Principle—pressure applied to a fluid is transmitted throughout the fluid.
    • Example: you squeeze 1 end of a toothpaste tube, toothpaste comes out the other end.
bernoulli s principle
Bernoulli’s Principle
  • Bernoulli’s principle describes how people were able to build a machine that can fly.
  • Bernoulli’s Principle—as the velocity of a fluid increases, the pressure exerted by the fluid decreases.
  • Airplane wings were designed to reduce pressure above the wings.
fluid flow
Fluid Flow
  • Viscosity—a resistance to flow by a liquid.
    • Example: Take syrup out of the fridge, pour it, and it flows slowly; heat it up, and it flows faster.
    • Cold syrup has high viscosity; warm syrup has low viscosity.
    • A rise in temp. increases the movement of particles in any substance.
sec 3 behavior of gases
Sec 3: Behavior of Gases
  • Boyle’s Law—when volume is decreased, pressure is increased (and vice versa) as long as temperature is constant.
  • The equation for Boyle’s Law is
    • P1V1 = P2V2
    • The subscript 1 represents initial pressure and volume, and the 2 represents final P & V.
  • The unit for pressure is pascals & the unit for volume is liters.
the pressure temperature law
The Pressure-Temperature Law
  • As temperature increases, the pressure increases too (and vice versa)
  • This is why you should keep pressurized spray canisters away from heat.
charles s law
Charles’s Law
  • Charles’s Law—the volume of a gas increases with increasing temperature (and vice versa)
  • The equation for Charles’s Law is
    • V1 = V2

T1 T2

    • Again, 1 is initial, and 2 is final.