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THEMES “Asian business success” today is part of a political, economic and cultural response to historical trauma Asian political-economic systems challenge “the standard model” Challenges and questions: Rise or Rebirth? (Old traditions, New States) “Clash of civilizations”? Globalization?

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

THEMES

“Asian business success” today is part of

a political, economic and cultural response to historical trauma

Asian political-economic systems challenge “the standard model”

Challenges and questions:

Rise or Rebirth? (Old traditions, New States)

“Clash of civilizations”?

Globalization?

Role of the state?

Development and democracy?

Democratic peace?

“Asian values”?

Problems of history

“Scratches on our minds”

Nationalism

The colonial question

slide2

CONSIDER

CULTURAL “RENAISSANCE”

UP FROM POVERTY

RECOVERY FROM WAR

The “Culture Argument”

The “Asian Model Argument”

The “Political Argument”

Legitimacy though economics/Nationalism

The “Globalization/American Peace Argument”

The “People Argument”

Leadership

slide3

Challenges

Post-WWII Identity

Reform

FDI

“Ersatz Capitalism”

Globalization

Competing in the global marketplace

OEM or Branding?

slide4

BUSINESS SYSTEMS

Conditioned by history and culture

Linked elements

*What are the authoritative institutions?

Law/Party/Custom

*How is the system coordinated?

Ownership/Networks/Management Style

Authority & Control

*How is the system organized?

Structure

Strategic Orientation

Market Relations

*What are the resources?

Capital/Human Resources/Social Capital

Personnel Practices

slide5

Why should we care about “business systems”?

  • All businesses (economies) are systems
  • Systems key characteristic: change one part, change all other parts (problem of unintended consequences)
  • 2.Appreciating the business system of your target market/potential partner lets you anticipate issues, plan better.
slide6

One typology:

    • Post-Socialist economies
    • Emerging SEA economies
    • Advanced City economies
    • Advanced Northeast Asian economies
    • (including Japan)
    • Significant differences?

“Multiplexity” “Hierarchy”

“Social Capital” “Informality”

“Culture”

slide7

Using the Redding/Witt Framework,

define US business system

Education/Skills Formation

Employment Relations

Financial System

Interfirm Relations

Internal Structure

Ownership/Corporate Governance

Social Capital

Role of the State

slide10

BUSINESS SYSTEMS

“GREATER CHINA”

PRC

SOES/Private/”Local”

China’s “Golden Rule” (MG)

Taiwan

Entrepreneurial/Hi-Tech/SMEs Family

Hong Kong

The “Hongs”/Family/Finance

Overseas Chinese (Huaqiao 华侨)

Family

“Bamboo Network”

slide11

“Multiplexity”?

Economist, “Capitalism Confined” 3 Sep 11

slide12

JAPAN

Keiretsu & Sosha (Kaisha)

Employment

“Patient capital”

Trust

SOUTH KOREA

Chaebol

Out of the 5 Year Plan

SOUTHEAST ASIA

Highly varied

INDO-CHINA

Thailand

Vietnam

slide14

Leadership – One of the keys

Many types , but some shared characteristics

“Confucian”

Combination of authoritative/benevolent/collective/moral

Long Term…seeing relationships, “over the horizon”

Moral

Frugal, CSR

Employee-centered, firm as family

Relationships & Networks (guanxi 关系)

Work ethic

Pressing the buttons

China: $ (instrumentalism, exploitation)

Japan: encouragement (gambate)

Korea: stability

slide16

McGREGOR: CHINA AS A START-UP AND A TURN-AROUND

CAN APPLY TO ASIA AS A WHOLE

URGENCY & VISION: THE NATION-FAMILY

REFORMS: “FEELING THE STONES”

CONTROL AND ROUGH JUSTICE

(RULE BY LAW, NOT RULE OF LAW)

ELITISM/INEQUALITY

slide21

OTHER APPROACHES TO BUSINESS SYSTEMS:

  • “EASE”
  • “GCR”
  • THE CHALLENGE IS TO SEE HOW THEY ALL FIT
slide22

“EASE OF DOING BUSINESS”

  • STARTING A BUSINESS
  • CONSTRUCTION PERMITS
  • ELECTRICITY
  • REGISTERING PROPERTY
  • GETTING CREDIT
  • PROTECTING INVESTORS
  • PAYING TAXES
  • CROSS-BORDER TRADING
  • ENFORCING CONTRACTS
  • RESOLVING INSOLVENCY

ALL OF THESE DEAL WITH “RULE OF LAW” MATTERS;

“INSTITUTIONAL” ISSUES IN THE GCR FRAMEWORK

slide23

GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS REPORT

  • A systematic approach to growth/”competitiveness”
  • From factor driven (basics) Teleological?
  • “Institutions”
  • Infrastructure Compare with Rostow?
  • Macro-econ. Stability
  • Health/Primary education (UNDP- HDI)
  • To efficiency driven (production)
  • Higher ed
  • ”Goods market”
  • Labor market
  • Finance
  • Tech readiness/
  • Market size
  • To innovation driven
  • Management
  • Innovation support