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Material Synthesis by Aerosol Process
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  1. Material Synthesis by Aerosol Process Reporter: Liao Lingzhi April.17th 2012

  2. Outline • Aerosol Application • Aerosol Process • Gas-to-Particle Conversion • Droplet-to-Particle Conversion • Comparison of Reactors • Measurement Techniques

  3. Aerosol Application Environment Climate Acid rain Ozone hole Smog Energy Fuel injection engines Coal combustion Metallic Fuels Turbine combustion Flue gas cleaning Health Asbestosis Smoking Medicine Allergies Aerosol Materials Carbon Blacks Titania pigments Zinc oxide Fumed silica Ni, Fe, Pt, Zn2SiO4 Astrophysics Planet formation Star dust

  4. Aerosol Application http://topnews.net.nz/content/23603-new-spray-make-men-warmer-discovered-german-researchers http://www.chericherie.com/ http://italian-ceramics-art.com/elegant-dishes-gifts/Ceramic-Majolica-Cappuccino-Cup-Saucer-FDL-Yellow-Red.html http://www.weallscheme.com/2009/12/22/introducing-the-aston-martin-carbon-black-special-edition-2/

  5. Outline • Aerosol Application • Aerosol Process • Gas-to-Particle Conversion • Droplet-to-Particle Conversion • Comparison of Reactors • Measurement Techniques

  6. Aerosol Process • Gas-to-Particle Conversion • Droplet-to-Particle Conversion Tearing Down Building Up S.E. Pratsinis, Tutorial session at the 14th Annual Meeting of the AAAR, Pittsburgh, Pa, 9 October 1995.

  7. Aerosol Process Desired Properties: • Fine particle size (<1μm, or even nonascale) • Narrow or monodispersedistribution • Spherical or equiaxial particle shape • No agglomeration or soft agglomerates • High purity of chemical composition • Single phase

  8. Outline • Aerosol Application • Aerosol Process • Gas-to-Particle Conversion • Droplet-to-Particle Conversion • Comparison of Reactors • Measurement Techniques

  9. Gas-to-Particle Conversion S.E. Pratsinis, Tutorial session at the 14th Annual Meeting of the AAAR, Pittsburgh, Pa, 9 October 1995. H. Sodano, Ceramic Processing Classnotes, FL, April 2012

  10. Gas-to-Particle Conversion • Flame Reactor • Furnace Reactor • Laser Reactor • Plasma Reactor • Evaporation/Condensation Unit with or without Chemical Reaction

  11. Flame Reactor http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s1phxdEcUmI S.E. Pratsinis, Tutorial session at the 14th Annual Meeting of the AAAR, Pittsburgh, Pa, 9 October 1995. Counter-flow Diffusion FR Premixed FR Co-flow Diffusion FR Mn/Si Ti/Si • W.J. Stark, S.E. Pratsinis, Aerosol flame reactors for manufacture of nanoparticles. Powder Technology. 126, 103-108 (2002) 11

  12. Flame Reactor • Advantages: • High product purity • Produce in large-scale, inexpensive • Flexibility in the product of the primary particle size (3-600 μm) • Disadvantages: • Hard agglomerates • Broad particle size distribution • Volatile precursor

  13. Furnace Reactor S.E. Pratsinis, Tutorial session at the 14th Annual Meeting of the AAAR, Pittsburgh, Pa, 9 October 1995.

  14. Furnace Reactor • Advantages: • Precise control of temperature and residence time • Good control of the product particle size • High product purity • Disadvantages: • Less energy efficient than flame reactors • Temperature up to 2100 ℃ • Deposits of powders on reactor wall

  15. Outline • Aerosol Application • Aerosol Process • Gas-to-Particle Conversion • Droplet-to-Particle Conversion • Comparison of Reactors • Measurement Techniques

  16. Droplet-to-Particle Conversion S.E. Pratsinis, Tutorial session at the 14th Annual Meeting of the AAAR, Pittsburgh, Pa, 9 October 1995.

  17. Droplet-to-Particle Conversion • Droplet Generation • Spray Pyrolysis • Spray Drying • Freeze Drying

  18. Droplet Generation S.E. Pratsinis, Tutorial session at the 14th Annual Meeting of the AAAR, Pittsburgh, Pa, 9 October 1995.

  19. Spray Pyrolysis

  20. Spray Pyrolysis • S. Allen, Spray pyrolysis presentation, University of Geulph Precursors----Evaporation----Drying ----Droplet Coagulation ----In situ solid reactions and sintering

  21. Spray Pyrolysis • Advantage: • High product purity • Multicomponent ceramic powders • Cost effective (few unit operations) • Disadvantage: • Particle size distribution highly depend on spread of droplet generator • Porous or hollow particles formed

  22. Particle Formation Solution Droplet Solid Shell with liquid inside Evaporation, precipitation and reaction Explosion Broken shell and Solution droplets Hollow particles Reaction Solid particle S.E. Pratsinis, Tutorial session at the 14th Annual Meeting of the AAAR, Pittsburgh, Pa, 9 October 1995. 22

  23. Outline • Aerosol Application • Aerosol Process • Gas-to-Particle Conversion • Droplet-to-Particle Conversion • Comparison of Reactors • Measurement Techniques

  24. Comparison of Aerosol Process • P.A. Baron, W. Klaus, Aerosol Measurement: principles, techniques, and applications (Wiley-Interscience, c2005), pp 721-743. [second edition]

  25. Outline • Aerosol Application • Aerosol Process • Gas-to-Particle Conversion • Droplet-to-Particle Conversion • Reactors • Measurement Techniques

  26. Characterizations need to be measured • Physical • Size • Shape • Microstructure • porosity • Chemical • Phase composition • Thermophysical • Thermochemical • Surface properties

  27. Summary of Characterization Tech • P.A. Baron, W. Klaus, Aerosol Measurement: principles, techniques, and applications (Wiley-Interscience, c2005), pp 721-743. [second edition]

  28. Particle Size Analysis Tech • P.A. Baron, W. Klaus, Aerosol Measurement: principles, techniques, and applications (Wiley-Interscience, c2005), pp 721-743. [second edition]

  29. Summary of Characterization Tech • P.A. Baron, W. Klaus, Aerosol Measurement: principles, techniques, and applications (Wiley-Interscience, c2005), pp 721-743. [second edition]

  30. Reflection

  31. Thank you for your attention! http://emeraldcoast.gatorclub.com/