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The Musical Museum and the Return of the Symphony

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  1. The Musical Museum and the Return of the Symphony

  2. New Halls and New Orchestras • The Leipzig Gewandhaus (1781), new hall built in 1884 • Vienna, Musikverein (Music Society) “Golden Hall” (1870) • Dresden, Gewerbehaussaal (1870) • America, New York’s Music Hall (Carnegie Hall) (1891)

  3. New Halls and New Orchestras • Vienna Philharmonic (founded 1842) • Dresden Hofkapelle • Paris, Société des Concerts du Conservatoire (1828); Société des Jeunes Artistes du Conservatoire (1853) • Russia, first professional orchestra in St. Petersburg (1859) • New York Philharmonic (1842) • Boston Symphony Orchestra (1881)

  4. The Triumph of Museum Culture • “Viennese Classics” • The concert hall as museum • Orchestral repertoire as “complete and finished”

  5. New Paths:Johannes Brahms • Brahms (1833–1897) • Brahms, Joseph Joachim, and Schumann • Schumann, “NeueBahnen” (New Paths) (1853)

  6. Johannes Brahms • Symphonic Attempts • Sonata in D Minor for Piano Duet (1854) • adapted into the First Piano Concerto and Requiem • The Serenade No. 1 in D Major, Op. 11 (1859)

  7. Johannes Brahms • Chamber Music and “Developing Variation” • Piano Quartet in G Minor, Op. 25 (1861) [Anthology 2-59] • Expansive first movement • Intermezzo • Andante con moto • Rondo allaZingarese(“the Hungarian style”) • sophisticated motivic elaborations and transformations (“developing variation”)

  8. Johannes Brahms • Choral Fame • A German Requiem (1869) • Triumphlied(“Song of Victory,” 1871)

  9. Inventing Tradition • The German past • Variations for Orchestra on a Theme by Joseph Haydn • also inspired by Spitta’s biography of Bach • First Symphony in C minor (1876) • the key of Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony • allusions to Schumann’s Manfred, Wagner’s Tristan un Isolde, Beethoven’s Fifth and Ninth Symphonies

  10. Victory Through Critique • Brahms, First Symphony, movement 4 [Anthology 2-60] • Goal-oriented toward fourth movement • alphorn theme • chorale theme, resemblance to Beethoven’s “Ode to Joy” theme

  11. Reconciliation and Backlash • Hans von Bülow, “the Tenth Symphony” “Bach, Beethoven, and Brahms” (“the three B’s”) • Wagner, “On Poetry and Composition” • “guise of a highly respectable symphony dressed up as Number Ten.”

  12. The Symphony as Sacrament • Anton Bruckner (1824–1896) • trained as organist and church choirmaster • worked in Linz and Vienna • organist for the Imperial Court Chapel in Vienna

  13. The Symphony as Sacrament • Anton Bruckner (1824–1896) • Masses • D minor, E minor, and F minor masses • Symphonies • style influenced by his experience as an organist • influence of Wagner • “study” symphony in F minor (1863) • 8 symphonies and an unfinished 9th • many revisions • cyclicism

  14. AntonínDvořák(1841–1904) • Categorized as a Czech composer though he never used authentic Czech melodies • Piano Quintet in A Major, Op. 81 [Anthology 2-61] • Piano Concerto (1876) • Violin Concerto (1879) • Cello Concerto (1894–95) • 9 symphonies

  15. Dvořák in the New World • Lived in the United States (1892–95) • Symphony in E Minor Z novéhosvěta (From the New World) [Anthology 2-62] • Ninth Symphony • first performance: 16 December 1893 in Carnegie Hall with New York Philharmonic • African American Spirituals

  16. An American Response • Edward MacDowell (1860–1908) • born in New York • studied in Germany • Character pieces for piano • Sea Pieces • Fireside Tales • New England Idyls • Woodland Sketches • “To a Wild Rose”

  17. An American Response • “Boston School” or “Second New England School” • MacDowell • John Knowles Paine (1839–1906) • Harvard • George Whitefield Chadwick (1854–1931) • New England Conservatory • Horatio Parker (1863–1919) • Yale

  18. An American Response • Amy Marcy Beach (1867–1944) • First Symphony (1894) • “Irish-Gaelic” folk songs • premiered by the Boston Symphony Orchestra in 1896

  19. War Brings Symphonies to France • SociétéNationale de Musique (National Musical Society) • Camille Saint-Saëns (1835–1921) • Symphony No. 3 in C Minor “Organ” (1886) • César Franck (1822–1890) • Symphony in D Minor (1889) • cyclic form • students • Vincent d’Indy (1851–1931) • Ernest Chausson (1855–1899)