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  1. World War I: An Introduction A Local Conflict Goes Global

  2. The Cousins WarWilhelm II George V Nicholas II

  3. Underlying CausesM.A.N.I.A. • Militarism • Alliances • Nationalism • Imperialism • Anarchy

  4. Militarism

  5. Militarism • Militarism: • The glorification of war & the military • The development of new weapons • The establishment of large reserve armies

  6. Militarism • Mobilization: • The organization of resources for combat • Generally triggers other nations to do the same

  7. Militarism • Example: • During the early 1900s Kaiser Wilhelm II expanded the German Navy • Wanted Germany to be equal to Great Britain in terms of naval strength

  8. Militarism • Great Britain felt threatened as a result of Germany’s naval buildup • Solution? • Expanded the British Navy • Developed a new battleship; The Dreadnought

  9. Alliances

  10. AlliancesDefense Agreement Among Nations

  11. Alliances • Triple Alliance: • Germany, Italy, Austria-Hungary • Allied in an attempt to isolate France • Triple Entente: • France, Great Britain, Russia

  12. Nationalism

  13. Nationalism • French Nationalism: • French nationalists sought revenge against Germany after their loss of Alsace-Lorraine in the Franco-Prussian War (1870)

  14. Nationalism • Slavic Nationalism: • A large-scale movement to unify all Slavic people under one empire • The Serbs wanted to lead Slavic unification; supported by Russia

  15. Nationalism • German Nationalism: • Germany wanted to prove it’s strength in comparison to the other great powers of Europe

  16. Imperialism

  17. Imperialism • Imperialism: • The domination of one nation by another • Germany & France came close to fighting a war over the control of Morocco

  18. Imperialism • Germany wanted to create a Berlin to Baghdad Railway • Caused resentment in Britain • Feared interference with India & reduced traffic thru the Suez Canal

  19. Anarchy

  20. Anarchy • At this time the nations of Europe began to pursue policies without consulting their neighbors • Problem? • If a crisis arose there was no international organization to monitor it…

  21. World war i:The Beginnings

  22. Immediate Causes • Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary was assassinated by GavriloPrincip • Princip was a member of the Serbian nationalist group Black Hand

  23. Why Assassination? • Ferdinand planned to give the Slavs of Bosnia-Herzegovina an equal voice in the Austro-Hungarian government • This threatenedthe movement for a separate Slavic state

  24. What Next? • Austria-Hungary held the Serbian government responsible for the assassination of Ferdinand • Austria-Hungary sought backup from Germany in the event of war

  25. What Next? • Germany issued a Blank Check to Austria-Hungary • Blank Check: • William II agreed to support any actions that Austria-Hungary might take against Serbia

  26. Tensions Build!! • The Ultimatum: • Austria-Hungary demanded entrance into Serbia • Why? • Suppress subversive organizations • Conduct an investigation

  27. Tensions Build!! • Austria-Hungary gave Serbia 48 hoursto agree to the ultimatum • Serbia REFUSED to agree • July 28, 1914: • Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia!

  28. Others Get Involved • Russia, an ally of Serbia, mobilized troops along the borders of Germany & Austria-Hungary • Germany warned Russia to stop • Russia refused!

  29. Others Get Involved • Germany issued an ultimatum to France • Gave France 18 hours to decide whether or not it would support Russia • France gave an inconclusive answer!

  30. Declarations of War • 08/01/1914: • Germany declared war on Russia • 08/03/1914: • Germany declared war on France

  31. Declarations of War • Great Britain hoped to remain neutral • DID NOT want to become involved in a war • HOWEVER…

  32. The Belgium Issue • Germany demanded passage across Belgium in order to fight France • Part of Germany’s Schlieffen Plan

  33. The Belgium Issue • In 1839 Britain, Russia, France & Germany signed a treaty that guaranteed Belgium’s neutrality • Due to the fact that Belgium was a neutral nation, Great Britain protested Germany’s demand

  34. The Belgium Issue • Despite Belgium’s neutrality, Germany invaded on August 14, 1914 • Great Britain demanded that Germany immediately withdraw from Belgium

  35. The Belgium Issue • Germany responded by referring to the treaty as nothing more than a “scrap of paper” • As a result Great Britain declared war on Germany

  36. World War I:Opposing Sides

  37. Opposing Sides • The Triple Entente became the Allied Powers • The Triple Alliance became the Central Powers

  38. Allied powers

  39. Allied powers • Major Players: • France, Great Britain, Russia • Italy (1915) • Japan (1915) • United States (1917) • 28 other countries

  40. Allied powers • Strengths: • More soldiers • More money • Greater industrial potential • Great Britain – best navy • France – excellent army

  41. Allied powers • Weaknesses: • Russia was WEAK & POOR • No unified command • Each country acted independently until the end of the war • Fighting on their OWN territory

  42. Central powers

  43. Central powers • Major Players: • Germany, Austria-Hungary • Bulgaria • Ottoman Empire (Turkey)

  44. Central powers • Strengths: • Germany – best army • Germany – excellent navy • Superior weapons • Fighting in enemy territory

  45. Central powers • Excellent lines of communication • Unified command • Everyone under German control • Control of the Dardanelles

  46. Central powers • Weaknesses: • Fighting a two-front war