“Over There” Chapter 23, Section 3
Hard Times for the Allies • American troops reached France in 1917 they saw desperate Allies • Million of soldiers had died • Troops in trenches were exhausted and ill • British and French civilians were near starvation
A second Russian Revolution • Russia withdrew from the war • Bolsheviks seized power from the Provisional Government • Led by V.I. Lenin • Wanted a communist revolution in Russia
A second Russian Revolution • Karl Marx: a German thinker of the 1800s • Predicted that workers around the world would come together to overthrow the ruling class • Workers would then end private property and set up a classless society • Lenin wanted to a revolution like Marx’s idea.
Carl Marx • Communist Manifesto • Marx argued that capitalism, like previous socioeconomic systems, would inevitably produce internal tensions which would lead to its destruction.Just as capitalism replaced feudalism, he believed socialism would, in its turn, replace capitalism, and lead to a stateless, classless society called pure communism.
Carl Marx • Marx argued that socio-economic change occurred through organized revolutionary action. He argued that capitalism will end through the organized actions of an international working class
A second Russian Revolution • Lenin (now in power) opened talks with Germany • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk • Russia gave up land to Germany • Lenin could now focus on the communist revolution
A second Russian Revolution • Allies saw the treaty as betrayal • Germany got coal mines and other resources in Russia • Germany could now move its troops out of Russia and into France • 1918 Germany troops launched an all-out attack
A new German push • German troops fired 6,000 canons at Amiens • German fought along the Aisne River • Germans reach the Marne River, Paris only 50 miles away • American troops entered the war
Americans in France • June 1918, Americans are reaching France in record numbers • John J. Pershing led the American Expeditionary Force (AEF). • Pershing insisted his troops operated as independent unit not relief for tired allied soldiers
Harlem Hell Fighters in Action • 369th United States infantry, a unit of African Americans attached to the French army. • They spent more time under fire than any other American unit
A hint of danger • Privates Henry Johnson and Needham Roberts guarder a tiny outpost near Montplaisir • Germans tossed grenades into the dugout • Johnson and Roberts fired grenades and fought hand to hand combat and fought off at least 2 dozen Germans • The 369th regiment got a hero’s welcome in the streets of New York
Final Battles • The French prepared to evacuate Paris
The marines will hold • Belleau Woods: first major battle for the American troops outside of Paris • Lasted 3 weeks • Directed by General Harbordrefused to hide in trenches • Allied victory
Turning the Tide • Germans launch another attempt to take Paris • They reached American troops and were forced to retreat • Allies now were on the offensive • Marshall Ferdinand Foch ( Frenchman) commanded the Allied forces
Into the Argonne Forest • More than a million Americans pushed into the Argonne Forest • The land was scarred with trenches and smelled of poisoned gases from earlier battle • Rain and the thick woods slowed the American advance • After 47 days Americans had won the Battle of the Argonne Forest • British, French, and Belgium forces also pushed Germans to retreat. • The “war to end all wars” was nearing its end
Peace at Last • Armistice: an agreement to stop fighting • Prince Max of Baden, head of the German cabinet asked President Wilson for an armistice. • Wilson replied under 2 conditions • German must accept his plan for peace • German emperor must give up power
Germany in turmoil • While German leaders debated a response revolutions in Germany simmered • German sailors rebelled • On the battle front German armies lost ground daily
Germany in turmoil • November 9th, 1918 German emperor resigned • He and his son fled to Holland • Germany became a republic • New German leaders agreed to take armistice • 11a.m. on November 11th, 1918 the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month World War I ended.
The cost of war • Between 10 million and 13 million people died in battle • Germany lost about 2 million • Russia, French, and British lost more than 4 million • United States lost over 500,000
The cost of war • More than 20 million soldiers on both sides were wounded • Much of northern France was destroyed • Millions of Germans near starvation • 1918 a terrible influenza epidemic spread around the world • 1918 -1919 more than 500,000 American died in the epidemic, • The death toll in other countries reached the millions