Kenya country mapping study for phase 2 of the learn4work programme october 2012 by john nyerere
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KENYA COUNTRY MAPPING STUDY FOR PHASE 2 OF THE LEARN4WORK PROGRAMME October 2012 By: John Nyerere. Contents. 1.0 Introduction 2.0 TVET sector 3.0 Labour market in kenya 4.0 Lessons learnt & practical policy challenges. 5.0 SWOT of key actors of TVET & labor market

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Kenya country mapping study for phase 2 of the learn4work programme october 2012 by john nyerere


1.0 Introduction

2.0 TVET sector

3.0 Labour market in kenya

4.0 Lessons learnt & practical policy challenges.

5.0 SWOT of key actors of TVET & labor market

6.0 Opportunities for harmonization with different actors

7.0 Way forward: understanding to support

8.0 Recommendations

1 0 introduction
1.0 Introduction

  • Globally education is acknowledged as a means for transforming and empowering the youth with skills, knowledge and, attitudes to enable them become productive members of the society.

  • In 2000, leaders of 189 countries decided to focus efforts on poverty reduction - on MDGs.

  • Technical and Vocational Education defined as “Education which is mainly to lead participants to acquire the practical skills, know-how and understanding, and necessary for employment in a particular occupation, trade or group of occupations (Atchoarena, D. & Delluc, A. 2001)”.

  • Practical skills or know- how can be provided by both the public and private sectors.

Purpose of mapping
Purpose of Mapping

  • To identify existing stakeholders and their interests in TVET;

    • Past experiences and good practices regarding demand and supply of TVET;

    • Strong and weak elements of the TVET sector.

  • The importance of the exercise lies in the establishment of relevancy for future partnerships’ activities.

  • The results of the mapping process will function as a guide for the further development of country and partnership proposals, which may need to be modified or updated.

Background of learning4 work l4w
Background of Learning4 Work (L4W).

  • The long-term objective of Learn4Work is:

    “To contribute to substantial and sustainable income for youth/young people and particularly those who are marginalised for one reason or the other”.

  • Mid-term objective

    • “to realise access to improved quality vocational education in Africa, which ensures its relevance for the labour market”.

The four l4w operational objectives
The four L4W operational objectives:

  • To improve access to vocational education and training in Africa

  • To enhance the quality and relevance of vocational education to the demands of the labour market

  • To sustainably embed good practices at institutional level of TVET providers

  • To include new actors into development cooperation, the education and private sector in particular and strengthen the Learn4Work network.


  • Updating from various documents relating to Government policy, strategy and economic survey- Vision 2030, PRSP, KESSP, Labour sector that deal with TIVET & Implications of implementing New Constitution.

  • Discussions with key officials

  • Focus on

    • Supply side issues- Education and training

    • Demand side issues- labour market

    • Identifying Key players in private sector

    • Issues and observations

Demographics context economic data
Demographics, Context & Economic Data

  • Pop. increased exponentially -2009 Census

    • 38,610,097 million people (19.4 - 50.26% women) and (19.2 - 49.7% men).

    • growing by an average of 1.2 million persons (one Million two hundred thousand) annually.

    • 43% of population below 15 years

    • females in the reproductive age (15-49) constituted about 48.3 % of population.


  • Economy is agricultural based (accounts for over 24 % of GDP & 70 % of the labour force);

  • Largest import market for food and agricultural products in East Africa - preferring white corn flour to produce “ugali” as part of their daily food intake, which on average makes 50% daily caloric intake

Economic governance
Economic Governance

  • 41 ministries run by cabinet ministers (political heads) and permanent secretaries(technical heads)

  • Key ministries based on their critical functions;

    • Finance, Planning/Economic Development,

    • Local Government, Internal Security, Agriculture, Health,

    • Defense, Tourism, Trade, Roads & Public Works

    • Environment/Natural Resources, Communication, Co-operatives and Labour.

Economic governance1
Economic Governance..

  • Transition after the enactment of the new constitution – August 2010:

    • Section 152 (1) provides for no fewer than 14 and no more than 22 Cabinet Secretaries (Ministers) including the President, Deputy President and the Attorney General

Key policies impacting tvet
Key Policies Impacting TVET

  • Sessional Paper No. 5 of 2005


  • Economic policies – ERS, Vision 2030, etc

  • Youth Policy

  • The new Constitution 2010 – devolved structures and new governance dispensation

Tivet specific policies
TIVET Specific Policies

  • National training strategy for TVET 2005 – Ensure that TVET institutions are adequately funded and equipped by 2008.

  • Gender Policy in Education - Seeks to increase enrolment, retention, transition and achievement in TVET, especially for girls and women.

  • TVET Bill- reviewed national legal frame work for TVET

    • Pending - Establishment of a TVET Authority to oversee the TIVET systems in the country (GoK 2008).

  • National Industrial Training Authority (NITA) 2011 – most recent

Semi non governmental actors
Semi/Non- Governmental Actors

  • National Industrial Training Authority- Industrial Training Act Cap 237(Amendment) of the Laws of Kenya(November 2011)

  • Kenya national chamber of commerce and industry (KNCC&I)- established in 1965

  • Kenya Private Sector Alliance (KEPSA)- formed in 2003

  • Federation of Kenya Employers (FKE)-registered under the Labour Act

  • Kenya Association of Manufacturers (KAM)-constituted in 1959

  • Kenya National Federation of Jua Kali Associations (KNFJKA)- registered in 1992

  • Eastern Africa Association (EAA)- Established in 1964

  • East African Business Council (EABC).

  • National Economic and Social Council (NESC)

Sectors with potential for l4w
Sectors with Potential for L4W

  • The Vision 2030 has identified 6 sectors for development in realization of the vision:

    • Tourism,

    • Business Processing Outsourcing (BPO),

    • Manufacturing,

    • Agriculture,

    • Finance, and

    • Wholesale/retail.

  • Infrastructure as an enabler

2 tvet sector supply side
2. TVET Sector -Supply side

  • TVET includes;

    • Technical training institutions,

    • MSE training and demonstration centres,

    • Youth polytechnics and National Youth Service Skills Development Centres.

  • TVET programmes are offered in;

    • Youth Polytechnics

    • Technical Training Institutes

    • Institutes of Technology and,

    • National Polytechnic universities

  • Supply introduction cont
    Supply Introduction Cont…

    Aims and Purpose of TVET in Kenya

    • Involve all relevant stakeholders in the development of a comprehensive national skills training strategy.

    • Establish mechanisms and appropriate incentives to promote private sector investments

    • Provide loans and bursaries to enhance access to TVET.

    • Establish a national coordinating body TIVETA.

    • Mobilize resources to rehabilitate facilities in public TVET institutions.

    Structure of education and training system
    Structure of Education and Training System
























    Above 18




    (4 YEARS)

    14 to 18


    (4 YEARS)










    PRIMARY (Formal and NFE)

    (8 YEARS)

    6 to 14

    4 to 6









    ECCD (3 YEARS)

    Donors involved in tvet programmes
    Donors Involved in TVET Programmes

    • World bank

    • The Netherlands Partners

    • African Development Bank

    • JICA


    • Italian Government

    • Private sector- Microsoft , Safaricom, Samsung, LG, etc

    Issues in tvet supply side
    Issues in TVET – supply side

    • Policies are in place – desire to form TIVETA to help focus – Awaiting Action

    • NITA – in place to drive private partcipation

    • Funds are being sought – From ADB and other donors

    • Some investments have been made especially in polytechnics

    • Kenya & Mombasa polytechnics are now University colleges

    • Suggestions for Incentives for private sector involvement through the inclusive education policy.

    Issues in tvet supply side1
    Issues in TVET – supply side

    • Gender imbalances in enrolment and in different fields of study.

    • Terminal nature of TVET.

    • Shortage of TVET opportunities particularly in rural/marginalized areas- the institutions are few compared to demand- number of school leavers at class 8 (>300,000 annually Vs Annual enrolment of approximately >80,000)- capacity to be determined.

    • Relevance of TVET syllabus to the job sector needs

    Issues cont
    Issues cont…

    • Lack of sufficient training opportunities for TVET at higher levels – Post graduate – Conversion of Technical schools to Technical Training, National Polytechnics to Colleges – need for balance not to hurt TVET

    • TVET is still at planning level.

    • Disconnect between market demands and TVET supply (labour)- deeper culture /image issues

    • Dramatic budget cuts – lack of interest by donors towards the sector based on funding trends – to UPE

    Labour policies
    Labour Policies

    The Employment Act No. 11 of 2007

    • Defines the fundamental rights of employees;

    • Provides basic conditions of employees and,

    • Regulates employment of children.

      The Labour Institutions Act No. 12 of 2007

    • Regulates the establishment of labour institutions to provide for their functions, powers and duties.

    The informal sector
    The Informal Sector

    • There is an increasing number of employees who are in the informal sector by preference.

      • This is irrespective of whether they are able to join the formal sector or not.

    • The informal sector- is the largest sector and is growing

      • Is labour intensive, exploits adaptive technology,

      • acquires skills outside formal sector and,

      • operates in unregulated and competitive markets –

    • Devolved Funding has created demand for services at community levels requiring skills of TIVET graduates – Areas Of Construction, Metal work

    • Technological advancements expanded the skills requirements especially in ICT- Techno parks

    Unemployment rates focus on youth and gender
    Unemployment Rates - Focus on Youth and Gender.

    • The Sub-Saharan Africa is one of the regions highly affected by youth unemployment.

    • It is estimated to be more than 21% (ILO: 2003).

    • It is estimated that 64% of unemployed persons in Kenya are youth.

    • The government envisages an intervention that involves a cross-section of existing TIVET institutions and provision of a new technical training institute to each of the country’s 8 provinces.

    Transition from school to work
    Transition from School to Work

    Existing Approaches To Improve Transition

    Creation of Industrial Incubators

    • The objectives of this initiative is to create industrial incubators in order to inspire and enable TIVET graduates set up small innovative growth oriented business enterprises for self-employment and enhance transfer of technology for industrial development.

    • To enhance transtion from primary to TIVET, the government has set the objective of school leavers accessing TIVET programmes through improved infrustucture and training.

    Issues for demand side
    Issues for demand side

    • Many initiatives have been undertaken

      • Restructuring of the Ministry of labour to revamp institutions like DIT and creation of Productivity the productivity centre

      • Review of various legislations and policies

      • Partnerships with the private sector like FKE and universities

      • Planned Investments in ICT – Fibre optics, Techno Villages

    Issues for demand side1
    Issues for demand side

    • Employment is only growing in the informal sector but dominated by unskilled labour

    • Unemployment rates high among the youth – in crisis - approaching disaster

    • Employers are yet to apprceaite the need for well trained Human resources – NITA has reviewed its policies but not many are taking up the incentives as should be.

    • Questions arise on relevance of Training in relations to skills required generally in Sub-Saharan Africa – skills needed in the labour market.

    • There needs to be a national skills inventory - backed by an efficient labour market information system.

    The way forward from understanding to practical support
    The Way Forward: From Understanding To Practical Support

    • TIVETA will ensure effective coordination, management and governance of TVET systems for inclusiveness in training in the country.

    • Initiatives aimed at achieving gender parity in the TVET system will continue to be developed and implemented by the government.

    • MOE to fast-track the establishment of a national qualifications framework so as to realize inclusive education in TVET, and other levels of education.


    • Revise technical, industrial and vocational education and training (TIVET) so that it reflects the needs of industry and the labor market.

    • Promote partnerships with the private sector, development partners;

    • Government should continuaaly undertake research to deepen understanding of issues on sector and play role of regulator - rather than providing training itself.

    • Vocationalise general to intergrate students into the work force and expose them to a range of skills and experiences

    • Establish more linkages between TIVET and other sectors – adress the culture and image associated with TIVET


    • Better coordination between the formal and informal training systems

    • Orient TIVET towards sustainable development

    • Promote broad access to learning and training and make TIVET an instrument for social inclusiveness and cohesion