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Cnidarian Diversity PowerPoint Presentation
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Cnidarian Diversity

Cnidarian Diversity

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Cnidarian Diversity

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  1. Cnidarian Diversity

  2. Phylum Cnidaria Class Anthozoa Class Hydrozoa Class Scyphozoa Class Cubozoa Corals Anemones Hydra Portuguese Man-Of-War Stinging Limu Fire Coral True jellyfish Box jellies Sea wasps

  3. Class Anthozoa Subclass Hexacorallia Subclass Alyconaria Sea fans Sea whips Sea pens Organ pipe coral Precious gold coral Order Zoanthidae Order Actinaria Order Scleractinia Order Antipatharia Zoanthids Sea anemones Stony corals Precious black coral Wire coral

  4. General Characteristics of Cnidaria • Stinging cells • Two stages in life cycle (polyp & medusa) • Blind sack gut • Radial symmetry • Diploblastic • Hydrostatic skeleton • Nerve net • Many colonial, some solitary forms

  5. Class Hydrozoa (Gr. hydra, water serpent) • polyps and medusa stage, although polyp stage is dominant. • gut cavity of polyp is simple, lacking a pharynx and not divided by mesenteries. • tetramerous (four-part) radial symmetry. • gonads are ectodermal (found in the epidermis). • medusa stage may possess specialized balance organs called statocysts and photosensitive organs called ocelli. • solitary or colonials; some colonial forms highly polymorphic. • includes hydroids (“stinging limu”), fire coral, pink coral, and siphonophores.

  6. The Cnidarian Life Cycle The Hydrozoan Life Cycle

  7. Hydrozoan Colony

  8. Hydrozoan Colonies“Stinging Limu”

  9. Hydrozoan Medusa

  10. Hydrozoan Medusa

  11. Hydrocorals

  12. Fire Coral

  13. By-the-Wind-SailorA Floating Colony of Polyps

  14. Coloniality Man-of-WarPhylum Cnidaria

  15. Close Up of a Portuguese Man-Of-War

  16. Class Scyphozoa (Gr. skyphos, cup) • life cycle with both polyps and medusae, but medusae dominate with polyp stage reduced or absent. • polyp stage (scyphistoma) goes through strobilization to produce young medusa. • bell margin lacks a velum. • tetramerous (= four-part) radial symmetry. • gut divided into a complex system of radial canals. • some with a simple single mouth, but many with thousands of microscopic “mouths” at the ends of oral arms. • gonads endodermal (found in the gastrodermis). • specialized sense organs called rhopalia with ocelli & statocysts . • includes some 200 marine species. • "true" sea jellies.

  17. scyphistoma strobila Scyphozoan Life Cycle strobila scyphistoma ephyra planula adult medusa gametes

  18. Sea Jellies

  19. Moon Jelly Anatomy

  20. Class Cubozoa (Gr. kybos, a cube) • polyps and medusae stages, but medusae dominate with polyp stage reduced. • polyp stage develops directly into medusa. • bell margin with a velarium. • tetramerous (= four-part) radial symmetry; bell cube-shaped with tentacles arising from each corner. • gonads endodermal (found in the gastrodermis). • specialized sense organs called rhopalia with ocelli & statocysts . • includes some 15 marine species. • includes box jellies and sea wasps.

  21. Seawasp Box Jellies

  22. Box Jelly Anatomy

  23. Class Anthozoa (Gr. anthos, flower) • lack medusa stage entirely (polyp forms only) • mouth with a tubular pharynx that projects inward into the gut • large gut cavity divided by mesenteries that radiate inwards from the body wall • gonads endodermal, borne on the mesenteries • hexamerous (6-part) or octamerous (8-part) radial symmetry or biradial (modified radial symmetry that limits the number of planes that can divide the body into equal halves • includes sea anemones, “true” stony corals, sea fans, sea pens, organ pipe coral, precious black coral, & zoanthids

  24. Subclass Zoantharia Order Actinaria Sea Anemones

  25. Sea Anemone Anatomy

  26. Subclass Hexacorallia Order Zoanthidae • No hard skeleton • May be tough and leathery • Shallow water forms • Encrusting forms • Some with zooxanthellae • Polyp stage only

  27. Subclass Hexacorallia Order Antipatheria Black Coral & Wire Coral Black coral Wire coral

  28. Subclass Hexacorallia Order Scleractinia “True” Stony Corals Hermatypic- reef building, zooxanthellae • Common species: • Acroporidae- table • Acroporidea- rice • Agariciidae- flat lobe, corrugated • Faviidae- crust, ocellated • Fungiidae- humpback, mushroom • Pocilloporidae- lace, antler, cauliflower • Poritidae- finger, lobe, plate

  29. “True” Stony Corals lobe finger mushroom Porites rus

  30. Subclass Alyconaria Octocorals • 8 branched tentacles surrounding the mouth • Both hard and soft forms exist • Ahermatypic- non reef building, no photosynthesis • Five Orders found in Hawaii: • Stolonifera • Pennatulacea (sea pens) • Alcyonacea (soft corals) • Telestacae (snowflake corals) • Gorgonacea (sea fans)

  31. Octocorals Sea pen

  32. Organ pipe coral