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Academic english iii

Academic english iii

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Academic english iii

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  1. Academic english iii September 17, 2012

  2. Today • APA style basics. • Argumentative writing (continued).

  3. APA • American Psychological Association. • One of the standard styles in academic writing. • It can be very tedious!

  4. APA • For now, you only need to know about: • - Title pages • - In-text citations. • - Reference sections.

  5. Page numbers: RIGHT-aligned Top- right corner Running head: LEFT-aligned CAPITAL LETTERS

  6. Citation • At KAC, we cite using the APA format. • It can be complicated, so it will take time to get familiar with it!

  7. Citation • Citing a source means to tell the reader where you got your information. • Example: • Students who are motivated by money tend to learn less than students who are motivated to learn by their own interest in a subject (Brown, 2007).

  8. Citation • Why cite? • Because you must give credit to the idea’s originator. • Citing RELIABLE sources in your own work significantly strengthens your points/arguments. • If you make a statement without a source, I could say “That’s just what you think.” • If you make a statement supported by a relevant, reliable source, it is much harder for me to argue with you.

  9. Citation But, when do I cite?! Source: geardiary.com

  10. Citation • Cite whenever you present someone else’s idea. • i.e., If you state a fact • The population of South Korea is 48,754,657 (The U.S. Department of State, 2012).

  11. Citation • When you cite a source in the text of your essay, it follows the following format: • (author(s)’s last name, year published). • i.e., • (Brown, 2007) • (Smith, Rogers, & Timmons, 1968).

  12. Citation • WHAT ABOUT WEBSITES ?!?! • If there is no author listed on a website, you can reference as follows: • (website name, date of publication or update). • (The U.S. Department of State, 2012)

  13. Citation • WHAT ABOUT WEBSITES ?!?! • If there is no author listed on a website, you can reference as follows: • (website name, date of publication or update). • If there is no date available, use ‘n.d.’ • (The U.S. Department of State, n.d.)

  14. Citation • NOTE: there are several ways to cite sources in-text. • See the website link about HOW this is done. • http://www.lib.sfu.ca/help/writing/apa#websites • (APA style guide).

  15. Referencing • If you cite a source in your text, then that source MUST appear in the reference section (at the end of the essay). • i.e., • Students who are motivated by money tend to learn less than students who are motivated to learn by their own interest in a subject (Brown, 2007).

  16. References Bacon, S. & Finnemann, M. (1992). Sex differences in self-reported beliefs about • language learning and authentic oral and written output. Language Learning, 42, • 471-495. Brown, J., Robson, G., & Rosenkjar, P. (2001). Personality, motivation, anxiety, • strategies, and language proficiency of Japanese students. In Z. Dornyei & R. • Schmidt (Eds.), Motivation and second language acquisition (pp. 361-398). • Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. • Chang, H. (2005). The relationship between extrinsic/intrinsic motivation and language learning strategies among college students of English in Taiwan. Unpublished master’s thesis for master’s degree, Ming Chuan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

  17. Referencing • In your “References” section, references are listed in alphabetical order. • BY LAST NAME

  18. Citation and references • Cite in-text. • Put the source in the reference section.

  19. Citation But, when do I cite?! Source: geardiary.com

  20. Citation • Whenever you are in doubt… • CITE!

  21. Supporting your claims In order to refute the opposing arguments, you need strong, reliable sources of evidence. Things to consider: • Who is the author? • How recent is the source? • What is the author’s purpose - Is the author merely giving an opinion, or does he/she present an objective (neutral) view of the topic? - Is the author trying to promote a particular idea? - Is the author being funded by a particular organization?

  22. Argumentative writing

  23. Argumentative Essay • Requires the writer to investigate a topic, • collect and evaluate evidence, • and establish a position on the topic.

  24. Issue or “prompt” • Your issue must be arguable. i.e., “Smoking should be illegal” vs. “Smoking is harmful to people’s health.” arguable not arguable

  25. Argumentative Essay • Requires that you have knowledge of both sides of the issue. i.e., Separating boys and girls during middle school years. - information in support of this. - information against this.

  26. Point-by-Point Pattern • Introduction • Body A. i. Other side’s 1st argument (counter argument 1) ii. Rebuttal (clear reasoning and evidence) B. i. Other side’s 2ndargument (counter argument 2) ii. Rebuttal (clear reasoning and evidence) C. i. Other side’s 3rdargument (counter argument 3) ii. Rebuttal (clear reasoning and evidence) III. Concluding paragraph

  27. Opposing arguments (counter-arguments) • A view/opinion/idea OPPOSED to your thesis.

  28. WHY would want to give the readers an opposing view?? I’m trying to PERSUADE them…idiot.

  29. Opposing arguments (counter-arguments) • A view/opinion/idea OPPOSED to your thesis. • Wouldn’t this WEAKEN the argument? • If used incorrectly… • OF COURSE. • BUT…

  30. Opposing arguments (counter-arguments) • If used well, counter-arguments make YOUR argument stronger. • It gives you the chance to respond to the readers’ possible objections to your ideas BEFORE they even finish reading. • It also demonstrates that you are a reasonable person who has considered both sides of the argument.

  31. How to present a counter-argument • You should express the counter-argument objectively. (do not present it using overly negative language) i.e., “Some people foolishly believe that…” “For some crazy reason, it is thought that…” Present the opposing view objectively, without any bias. Remember: The point is to show the reader that you have considered both sides.

  32. How to present a counter-argument • You should express the counter-argument objectively. • You can express the counter-argument in one sentence (or a few sentences) in a point-by-point argumentative paper. • The important thing is to make sure you have presented the counter-argument clearly and with enough detail that it is understandable to the reader.

  33. How to present a counter-argument • In other forms of argumentative essays, sometimes entire paragraphs may be dedicated to the counter-argument (to show you have thoroughly researched the issue and that you are capable of acknowledging other points of views).

  34. How to present a counter-argument • How can a counter-argument be introduced? Here are some typical introduction phrases: Many people [believe/argue/feel/think/suppose/etc.] that [counter-argument]. i.e., “Many people argue that chocolate ice cream should be banned from the KMU campus.”

  35. How to present a counter-argument • How can a counter-argument be introduced? Here are some typical introduction phrases: It is often [thought/imagined/supposed/etc.] that [counter-argument] i.e., “It is often supposed that chocolate ice cream is dangerous because it makes students too happy.”

  36. How to present a counter-argument • How can a counter-argument be introduced? Here are some typical introduction phrases: [It would be easy to/One could easily] [think/believe/imagine/suppose/etc.] that [counter-argument] i.e., “One could easily believe that chocolate ice cream is dangerous because it makes students too happy.”

  37. How to present a counter-argument • How can a counter-argument be introduced? Here are some typical introduction phrases: It might [seem/appear/look/etc.] as if [counter-argument ] i.e., “It might seem as if chocolate ice cream is dangerous because it makes students too happy.”

  38. How to present a counter-argument • Regardless of the language you use to present a counter-argument, the important point is to try to present the counter-argument clearly and in an objective fashion.

  39. Rebutting a counter-argument • Here is the important part. • This is your turn to persuade the reader against the counter-argument. • The rebuttal.

  40. Rebutting a counter-argument • We have already looked at how to generally rebut opposing views (using logic and evidence). • Here, we will discuss rebuttals in more detail.

  41. Rebutting a counter-argument • One of the most effective ways to rebut a counter-argument is to show that it is based on faulty assumptions: • - either the facts are wrong • Or • - the analysis is incorrect • Or • - it is based on values that are not acceptable.

  42. Rebuttals - Examples NOTE: These examples are related to a claim from James Loewen’s book, Lies My Teacher Told Me (1995). Our central claim: “To function adequately in civic life…students must learn what causes racism.” Thesis: Despite objections to this claim, to function adequately in civic life…students must learn what causes racism.

  43. Counter-argument: Racism is a thing of the past; therefore, students don’t need to bother with it. “Some people argue that racism is a thing of the past; therefore, students don’t need to bother with it.” This is faulty factual assumption. What is the faulty (wrong) assumption here? “Racism is a thing of the past”.

  44. Counter-argument:“Some people argue that racism is a thing of the past; therefore, students don’t need to bother with it.” This is faulty factual assumption. “Racism is a thing of the past”. One response could be to give facts (evidence) that show that racism continues to be a problem.

  45. Counter-argument:“Some people argue that racism is a thing of the past; therefore, students don’t need to bother with it.” A second faulty assumption here: - Student’s don’t need to think about what was is in the past. - Another possible response could be to show that students must understand that past as well as the present “to function adequately in civic life.”

  46. How to present a rebuttal • If the counter-argument requires clear signaling, than so does the rebuttal (perhaps even more importantly!). In stating a counter-argument, your essay has made a 180° turn away from your claim, for the rebuttal, it is time to do another 180° to complete your circle (return to YOUR claim). The readers will benefit from a clear signal that the rebuttal will begin.

  47. How to present a rebuttal • How can you transition into a rebuttal? Here are some typical introduction phrases: What this argument [overlooks/fails to consider/does not take into account] is ... i.e., “What this argument fails to consider is that racism continues to be a problem in school and in everyday life (SOURCE).”

  48. How to present a rebuttal • How can you transition into a rebuttal? Here are some typical introduction phrases: This view [seems/looks/sounds/appears.] [convincing/plausible/persuasive/etc.] at first, but ... i.e., “This view appears plausible at first, but the reality is racism continues to be a problem in school and in everyday life (SOURCE).”

  49. How to present a rebuttal • How can you transition into a rebuttal? Here are some typical introduction phrases: While this position is popular, it is [not supported by the facts/not logical/impractical/etc.] i.e., “While this position is popular, it is not supported by the facts.

  50. How to present a rebuttal • How can you transition into a rebuttal? Here are some typical introduction phrases: Although the core of this claim is valid, it suffers from a flaw in its [reasoning/application/etc.] i.e., “Although the core of this claim is valid, it suffers from a flaw in its reasoning.