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Pacific Northwest Forested Wetland Literature Survey. Cooke Scientific Services, Inc. Seattle, Washington Cookescientific.com. Funding and Review Organizations. Cooperative Monitoring Evaluation and Research Committee (CMER) Supplied grant Wetland Scientific Advisory Group (WETSAG)

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pacific northwest forested wetland literature survey

Pacific Northwest Forested Wetland Literature Survey

Cooke Scientific Services, Inc.

Seattle, Washington

Cookescientific.com

funding and review organizations
Funding and Review Organizations
  • Cooperative Monitoring Evaluation and Research Committee (CMER)

Supplied grant

  • Wetland Scientific Advisory Group (WETSAG)

Project oversight

  • Department of Natural Resources

Grant administrator

timber management practices pnw trends
Timber Management Practices PNW - Trends
  • Forested wetlands may be harvested similarly to upland areas.
  • No restrictions to tree removal in non-bog forested wetlands.
  • WA Forest Practices Act (1990) emphasizes reducing impacts to hydrology and soils in forested wetlands but does not impose restrictions.
  • Common timber management impacts:
    • Removal of nutrients
    • Reduction of soil productivity
    • Increased soil temperature
    • Hydrologic changes
    • Changes in water yield and stream flow patterns
    • Reduction of available wildlife habitat
timber management in pnw
Timber Management in PNW
  • Even Aged Management (Clear-cutting)
    • Is the dominant harvest method in W. Washington and Oregon
    • Results in little or no difference in tree age within a stand
    • Alters forest community and habitat
    • Shortens growth cycle
    • Decreases the presence or absence of snags
  • Uneven Aged Management (Selective Cutting)
    • Results in 3 or more tree ages within a stand
    • Has no associated rotation age
    • Results in a multilevel forest of different sized trees
    • Provides habitat for various species throughout their life cycle
    • Provides stand-scale wildlife habitat with more spatial homogeneity
pnw forested wetland characterization
PNW Forested Wetland Characterization
  • Classify by Wetland Type (montane, riverine)
  • Classify by Soils (organic, mineral)
  • Classify by VegetationCommunity Associations
      • Organic
      • Bog
      • Mineral
  • Classify by Hydrologic Regime
  • Classify Wildlife Associations
classification of forested wetlands in washington and oregon johnson and o neil 2001
Classification of Forested Wetlands in Washington and Oregon (Johnson and O’Neil 2001)
  • Montane Coniferous-Wetlands
  • Westside Riparian-Wetlands
  • Eastside Riparian-Wetlands
montane coniferous wetlands washington and oregon
Montane Coniferous Wetlands (Washington and Oregon)
  • Steep slopes
  • Mountains
  • Flat valley bottoms
  • 2,000-9,500 feet msl
  • PFO or floodplains with snow pack
  • Annual precipitation 35 to 200 inches
  • Found adjacent to streams and herbaceous wetlands or as small patches within a matrix of upland mixed conifer forest (Johnson O’Neil 2001).
eastside riparian forested wetlands
100-9,500 msl

Along streams and rivers

Within 100-200 feet of stream corridor or water source

Primary hydrologic input overbank flow

Photo Source: Rosgen 1996

Eastside Riparian Forested Wetlands
westside riparian forested wetlands
Flat, gently sloping, or steep terrain

Common below 3,000 feet msl but found as high as 5,500 msl.

Primary hydrologic input overbank flow, or perennial flowing water Photo Source: Rosgen 1996

Westside Riparian Forested Wetlands
pnw forested wetland community types kunze 1994
PNW Forested Wetland Community Types (Kunze 1994)
  • Pinus contorta/Ledum groenlandicum/Sphagnum spp.
  • Pinus monticola/Ledum groenlandicum/Sphagnum spp.
  • Tsuga heterophylla/Ledum groenlandicum/Sphagnum spp.
  • Tsuga heterophylla/Sphagnum spp.
pnw forested bog community types kunze 1994
PNW Forested Bog Community Types (Kunze 1994)
  • Pinus contorta/Ledum groenlandicum/Sphagnum spp.
  • Pinus contorta-Thuja plicata/

Myrica gale/Sphagnum spp.

  • Thuja plicata-Tsuga heterophylla/Gaultheria shallon/Lysichiton americanum/Sphagnum spp.
  • Tsuga heterophylla/Ledum groenlandicum/Sphagnum spp.
vegetation communities associated with organic soils
Southern PNW (Oregon,

Washington, Idaho,

Montana, and southern

British Columbia)

Colonized by shrubs, herbs, and sparse tree stands

Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta)

Western red cedar (Thuja plicata)

Western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla)

Western white pine (Pinus monticola)

Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis)

Northern PNW (northern

British Columbia and Alaska)

Colonized by stunted tree stands

Black spruce (Picea mariana)

Tamarack (Larix laricina)

Western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla)

Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta)

Alaska cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis)

Western red cedar (Thuja plicata)

Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis)

Mountain hemlock (Tsuga maertensiana)

Vegetation Communities Associated with Organic Soils
vegetation associated with mineral soils southern pnw
Western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla)

Western red cedar (Thuja plicata)

Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis)

Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta)

Black cottonwood (Populus balsmifera)

Red alder (Alnus rubra)

Paper birch (Betula papyrifera)

Oregon ash (Fraxinus latifolia)

Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides)

Vegetation Associated with Mineral Soils Southern PNW
vegetation communities associated with mineral soils northern pnw
Black spruce (Picea marina)

Tamarack (Larix laricina)

Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta)

White spruce (Picea glauca)

White/Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmanii)

Balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera)

Quaking aspen (Populus remuloides)

Paper birch (Betula papyrifera)

Alaska Paper birch (Betulaneoalasana)

Vegetation Communities Associated with Mineral Soils Northern PNW
pnw forested wetland soils
PNW Forested Wetland Soils

Organic Soils

  • Develop under prolonged saturated conditions
  • Histosols (peat, muck, or mucky peat)
  • Gelisols (permafrost or gelic materials 1m bgs)
  • Organic carbon content of 12 to 18% or more organic carbon
  • Limited to depressions and alluvial fans in southern PNW (range from 0.5 to 250 ha in size)
  • Large expanses on flat or sloping terrain in NE British Columbia and Central/SE Alaska (range from 5 to 800 ha in size)
  • Mineral Soils
    • Majority of forested wetlands associated with mineral soils (southern PNW)
    • Alluvial floodplain, mountainside, hillside seeps, depressions
    • Fine grain clay loam/silty clay loam/gravelly sandy loam, often with a layer of decomposed organic material
    • Support more diverse forested community
hydrologic characteristics
Hydrologic Characteristics

Not much is known!

  • Information on coastal forested water balances is primarily from British Columbia
  • Undisturbed watershed rainfall data is available for the Cascade Mountains in Oregon
  • The hydrology of small forest streams has been intensively studied in western Oregon.
  • Alaskan water balances indicate that rainfall exceeds evapotranspiration and that permafrost impedes drainage, so most of the state would be considered wetland. Recharge and discharge functions of wetlands near Juneau have been examined
pnw forested wetland wildlife

Matthew G. Hunter

PNW Forested Wetland Wildlife

Overall:

Little research has been conducted on characterization of wildlife (amphibians, birds, mammals, fish) habitat associations in PNW forested wetlands.

  • Forested wetlands often provide unique habitat features required by many wildlife species:
        • Large diameter trees
        • Complexity Vegetation
        • Snags
        • Organic litter
        • Downed wood
        • Food
        • Cover
amphibians of pnw forested wetlands
Overview:

No studies in the PNW have specifically investigated amphibian association with forested wetlands.

Forest and Fish designated species:

Tailed Frog (2 species)

Rocky mountain tailed frog

Pacific tailed frog

Seep or Torrent Salamander (3 species)

Cascade torrent salamander

Columbia torrent salamander

Olympic torrent salamander

Van Dyke’s Salamander

Dunn’s Salamander

W. P. Leonard

Amphibians of PNW Forested Wetlands

H. Welsh

W. P. Leonard

W. P. Leonard

W. P. Leonard

Matthew G. Hunter

birds of pnw forested wetlands
Overview:

No studies in the PNW have specifically investigated avian communities associated with forested wetlands.

367 species found in OR and WA

72% use freshwater riparian and wetland habitats (all classes)

77% of all inland birds breed in riparian and wetland environments

103 species closely associated

89 species generally associated

Bird presence is strongly associated with habitat features

Birds of PNW Forested Wetlands
preferred habitat features for birds
Preferred Habitat Features for Birds

Preferred Habitat Features*:

  • Large dominant trees
  • Mixed tree species composition
  • Multi-layered canopy
  • Irregular crown structure
  • Patches of dense foliage
  • Large standing dead wood
  • Abundant woody debris on forest floor
  • *inferred from uplands

Photo Source: Knopf 1995

mammals of pnw forested wetlands
PNW contains 156 species of mammals

Greater than 50 species breed and feed in Montane Coniferous Wetlands

Greater than 60 species breed and feed in Western Riparian Wetlands

70 species breed and feed in eastern Riparian Wetlands

Mammals of PNW Forested Wetlands
mammals of pnw forested wetlands1
There is little information on characterizing the life history of most riparian and forested wetland habitat obligate mammals

Mammals use riparian and wetland sites for:

Breeding

Feeding

Cover

Aquatic habitat features most important in arid environments

Mammals of PNW Forested Wetlands
fish associated with pnw forested wetlands
5 species of Pacific salmon and 3 species of anadromous trout utilize streams and rivers in PNW

Little is known about about salmonids’ relationships with forested wetlands

Fish Associated with PNW Forested Wetlands
effects of forest management on pnw forested wetlands
Overall:

Forest management effects on PNW forested wetland function is virtually unresearched.

Categories:

Vegetation

Soil

Hydrology

Wildlife

Effects of Forest Management on PNW Forested Wetlands
effects of forest management on vegetation communities
Effects of Forest Management on Vegetation Communities
  • Change in vegetation community
  • Reduces:
    • Species richness
    • Genetic variability
    • Functional diversity
    • Structural diversity
effects of forest management on soil characteristics include
Effects of Forest Management on Soil Characteristics Include:
  • Soil Compaction
  • Disruption of Forest Duff
  • Erosion
  • Alteration to Organic Soils
  • Frozen Soils
soil compaction associated with harvest include
Increases in bulk density

Increases in erosion

Increases in competition with weedy species

Decreases in air-filled porosity

Decreases in infiltration rates

Decrease in hydrologic conductivity

Reduction in tree regeneration

Changes in landscape hydrology

Higher soil compaction when soil is saturated

McNabb et al. (2001) researched affects of logging traffic on soil and soil wetness on porosity and bulk density

Colin and van den Driessche (1996) Laboratory study of soil compaction and lodgepole pine, Douglas fir and white spruce reduced uptake of nutrients and metals

Bulmer (1998) Remediation treatments to improve stripped, compacted soils associated with logging:

tillage

mulches

revegetation

micobes

Soil Compaction Associated with Harvest Include:
soil compaction associated with harvest include cont
Erosion

Loss of topsoil that is redeposited downslope, resulting in areas of increased productivity and also exposed subsoil with lower productivity

Most erosion immediately following disturbance

All the above is related to soil types and degree of disturbance

Disruption of forest duff that is an important rooting medium or mulch layer

Harvest Activities that reduce, spread, or mix duff layer

Decreases in soil physical, chemical, and biological processes, and reduces soil productivity and stability

Impacts to tree regeneration

Establishment of less-desirable pioneering species (red alder, paper birch, black cottonwood, balsam cottonwood)

Disruption of soil macropores by moving organic matter, clays, and sequioxides, reducing rainwater infiltration and soil aggregation

Soil Compaction Associated with Harvest Include cont…..
alteration to organic soils
Harvest can change surface or near surface hydrology and runoff or drainage patterns

Drainage can decompose and oxidize organic soil causing subsidence of soil surface and increased nutrient load in runoff

Increases in water tables may alter PFO vegetation, converting it to a shrub or herbaceous -dominated wetland.

Loss of phosphorus and potassium

Alteration to Organic Soils
  • Organic soils provide a wet but partially-aerated surface layer
  • Ruts disrupt horizontal and vertical flow of water through surface layer
  • Summer harvesting can cause deep water-filled ruts
  • Winter harvesting with rubber tires reduced ruts and disruption of duff/vegetation
effects of forest management on frozen soils
Effects of Forest Management on Frozen Soils
  • Frost is found from the ground surface to 15-60 cm bgs in wetland soil
  • Winter logging results in less environmental damage to soil layers and microtopography
  • Caution:
    • Early winter logging or heavy snow cover can minimize depth of freezing and leave soil fragile
    • Vegetation removal may thaw permafrost and result in soil subsidence, cryoturbation, or flooding
effects of forest management on hydrology
Effects of Forest Management on Hydrology

There is Little or no peer reviewed research on forested wetland hydrology or FM effects.

  • Hydrology changes are related to:
    • Vegetation removal (decreased transpiration)
    • Rutting
    • Soil compaction
    • LWD removal
  • Studies of pre/post harvest hydrology are needed
effects of forest management on forested wetland wildlife habitat
Effects of Forest Management on Forested Wetland Wildlife Habitat
  • Birds
  • Amphibians
  • Mammals
  • Fish

Photo Source: Neiring 1985

effects of timber management on birds
Little research on TM effects on Forested Wetland Birds

Effects of harvest are varied and depend on:

Species characteristics

Preharvest vegetation

Type of harvest intensity

Timing

Successional phase

Birds requiring late successional characteristics may be displaced following TM

TM may decrease:

Bird density

Bird diversity

Nesting substrate

Simplify vegetation structure

TM may increase:

Habitat fragmentation

Nest predation

Effects of Timber Management on Birds
effects of timber management on birds1
Selective harvest may benefit avian communities when:

Stands are allowed to mature

Coarse woody debris accumulates

Habitat components are replaced

Effects of Timber Management on Birds

Photo Source: Niering 1985

effects of timber management on forested wetland mammals
There has beenLittle research on TM effects on forested wetland mammals

Most research studies riparian zones

Effects of harvest are varied and depend on:

Species characteristics

Preharvest vegetation

Type of harvest intensity

Timing

Successional phase

Mammals adapted to forested wetlands may be displaced following TM

TM may decrease:

Mammal density

Mammal diversity

Simplify vegetation structure

TM may increase:

Habitat fragmentation

Effects of Timber Management on Forested Wetland Mammals
  • Photo Source: Niering 1985
effects of timber management on amphibians
Little research on TM effects on Forested Wetland- associated amphibians

TM influence appears to vary with harvest type and species affected

TM can displace amphibians by disrupting life cycle requirements through:

Sedimentation of egg sites

Increased water temperature

Soil compaction

Hydrologic changes

In upland sites:

Control sites had 3.5 times the amphibians as clear-cut sites

Species richness has shown high variability

Thought to reflect amphibians, close association with habitat requirements like CWD and structural components

Amphibians may benefit from alternative timber management practices:

Retaining CWD

Litter depth

Large trees

Canopy closure

Soil moisture

Effects of Timber Management on Amphibians
effects of timber management on fish
There has been little research done on TM effects on forested wetland associated fish

In riparian communities TM affects fish by:

Increasing water temperature

Siltation

Altering prey species composition

Decreasing large woody debris

Decreasing LWD inputs

Pess et al. (2002) studied distribution of salmon and land use patterns in PNW

Significant correlation between land use and salmon abundance

Wetlands had consistent positive correlations to spawner abundance

Effects of Timber Management on Fish
conclusions and future research
Conclusions:

Little information is published on PNW forested wetland characterization and wildlife associations

Little research has been published regarding Timber Management’s effect on PNW forested wetland hydrology, vegetation changes, soils, and wildlife.

Most literature discussed is based on upland communities, riparian communities, or forested wetlands in other regions.

PNW Forested Wetland

Research Needs:

Characterize PNW forested wetland hydrology, soils, and wildlife associations

Investigate how different TM practices effect vegetation change, hydrology, soils and wildlife associations in the PNW.

Conclusions and Future Research
how to find the references
Products of this research include:

Annotated Bibliography (701 references)

Synthesis paper (summary of current knowledge)

Slide show

All can be found (by June?) as PDF files at:

Cookescientific.com

Published by:

Washington State Department of Natural Resources

How to Find the References?