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Standards-Based Grading in the Science Classroom. How do I make my grading support student learning? Ken Mattingly Julie Phillips Standards-based Grading. How do I make my grading: Meaningful? Defensible?

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standards based grading in the science classroom

Standards-Based Grading in the Science Classroom

How do I make my grading support student learning?

Ken Mattingly

Julie Phillips

standards based grading
Standards-based Grading
  • How do I make my grading:
    • Meaningful?
    • Defensible?
    • Student motivating?
    • Teacher friendly?
    • Infinite Campus compatible?
    • Administration approved?
our job
Our Job…
  • To show you how a standards-based grading system works.
  • To show you how standards-based grading can improve student motivation and performance
we will do that by
We will do that by…
  • Sharing examples of formative and summative assessments that focus on learning targets.
  • Presenting a method for using learning targets as the structure for a standards-based grading scale.
  • Sharing examples of student opportunities to demonstrate target mastery that allows them to take ownership of their learning.
rockcastle county middle school
Rockcastle County Middle School
  • 625 students grades 6-8
  • 2 teams per grade level
  • 70% Free and reduced lunch
  • 2007 AI – 95, 2008 AI – 98, 2009 AI – 105
  • Science P+D%:
    • 2007: 70
    • 2008: 73
    • 2009: 84
guidelines for grading in standards based systems
Guidelines for Grading in Standards-Based Systems
  • Relate grading procedures to learning goals (targets)
  • Use criterion-referenced performance standards as references points to determine grades
  • Limit the valued attributes included in grades to individual achievement
  • Sample student performance – do not include all scores in grades
  • Grade in pencil – keep records so they can be updated easily
  • Crunch numbers carefully – if at all
  • Use quality assessments and properly recorded evidence of achievement
  • Discuss and involve students in assessment, including grading, throughout the teaching/learning process
          • Ken O’Connor, How to Grade for Learning, p. 44
standards based grading in a nutshell
Standards-based Grading in a Nutshell
  • Focuses on whether students know what you want them to know
  • Provides opportunities for variable learning paces
  • Rewards students who continue to try mastering the information/concepts
  • Gives a clear indication of what students know and don’t know
  • Gives a clear picture of where your instruction is being effective/ineffective
the backbone of a good standards based system
The Backbone of a Good Standards-based system?
  • Learning Targets that are:
    • Clear to all stakeholders
    • Communicated to students
    • Measured regularly
    • Adjustments to learning made
student friendly learning target example
Student Friendly Learning Target Example
  • Standard: SC-07-4.6.2 Students will:
    • describe the transfer and/or transformations of energy which occur in examples that involve several different forms of energy (e.g., heat, electrical, light, motion of objects and chemical).
    • Explain, qualitatively or quantitatively, that heat lost by hot object equals the heat gained by cold object.
student friendly learning target example10
Student Friendly Learning Target Example
  • I can give examples of energy.
  • I can give examples of energy transfer. That means when energy is moved from one object to another.
  • I can give examples of energy transformations. That means when energy is changed from one form to another form.
  • I can describe the exchange of energy between hot objects and cold objects.
clear student friendly targets
Clear, Student-friendly Targets
  • Turn knowledge, skill, reasoning, and product pieces into “I can” target statements.
  • Targets should use student-friendly language.
  • Targets should be attainable.
  • Provide clear, stationary targets for students to aim at and they will hit them.
  • Give students a copy of learning targets for the unit.
Students who can identify what they are learning significantly outscore those who cannot.
  • Robert Marzano
  • Formative
    • Tied to how student is doing on a particular target
    • Use to identify growth areas and show how to close the mastery gap
    • Generally not included in grading of target mastery
  • Summative
    • Includes assessment items for all targets in a unit
    • Diagnoses strengths and weaknesses of student
    • Provides road map for attaining target mastery
    • Determines current performance on targets
using targets for post assessment development
Using Targets for Post-Assessment Development
  • Matching the assessment method to the type of target.
  • Determining adequate sampling size.
  • Assessment format considerations: open response vs. multiple-choice, time constraints
  • Quality of questions, information value of incorrect answers
summative feedback
Summative Feedback
  • Before using targets: score 65%
    • Student knows what questions they got right/wrong
    • Kept the score and went on, maybe reviewed, but still went on
    • No diagnosis of problems and ways to address them – perhaps taking a test again but no plan as to what to focus on
    • No idea on student or teacher’s part of strengths and weaknesses
summative feedback17
Summative Feedback
  • After using targets: score 65%
    • Get results broken out by target
    • Students know what they do well and what they need to work on
    • Students have opportunities to work on identified targets and gain understanding before trying again to show mastery
    • Diagnostic tool to show strengths and weaknesses by student and class
re testing
  • Students have received summative assessment results by target
  • Identify targets needing improvement
  • Work on target practice in preparation for re-testing
  • Re-test only over identified targets
  • Evaluate results, rinse, and repeat!
our grading format
Our Grading Format
  • All assessments, formative and summative, are based on learning targets
  • Students’ grades are based on how well they show mastery of learning targets
  • Behaviors are not factored into grade unless the behavior is an identified and communicated learning target
  • Students are aware of targets being assessed
  • Students are given multiple opportunities to demonstrate mastery of targets
no grades for
No Grades for…
  • Homework
  • Activities
  • Class work
  • Behavior
  • Quizzes
  • Formative assessments
learning target performance criterion
Learning Target Performance Criterion
  • Student performance is divided into three categories
    • Basic
    • Developing
    • Mastery
  • Students receive a score of 1, 2, or 3 for each target depending on their performance
summative assessment
Summative Assessment
  • Provides itemized feedback on performance per learning target
why do we need a grade
Why Do We Need a Grade?
  • They will be around for a while
  • Parents expect and “understand” them
  • Students need something to compare their learning to
  • Communities are not ready for “no grades”
  • Administrators are not ready for “no grades” 
so where s the grade
So Where’s the Grade?
  • Total points possible for each target is 3
  • Total points for unit is number of targets times 3
  • Students total points earned divided by total unit points gives percentage
  • All 2’s (developing) = 67% D
  • ½ 2’s and ½ 3’s = 83% low B
  • All 3’s (mastery) = 100% A
re testing26
  • Opportunities for re-teaching
    • Reviewing test results
    • Learning target practice
    • Classroom time
  • Re-test by target
    • Targets receiving 1’s must be worked on
    • Targets receiving 2’s can be worked on
  • Results on re-test provide information for further narrowing of mastery gap
infinite campus
Infinite Campus
  • Targets are entered as different assignments
  • Assignment is given a name “Ecosystem Learning Target #1”
  • Assignment description contains the target statement
  • Each assignment is worth a maximum of 3 points
infinite campus information
Infinite Campus Information
  • Section Summary report gives a great deal of information
  • Reading across a student line tells how the student is doing on each target
  • Reading down the learning target column tells how the class is doing per target
today s take home message on standards based grading
Today’s Take Home Message on Standards-Based Grading
  • Students are graded on their mastery of standards (learning targets)
  • There are communicable levels of performance leading to mastery
  • Only mastery of standards is included on grade calculation
  • Students receive multiple opportunities to show mastery of standards
  • Standards-based grading gives students the chance to take ownership of their performance