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POWER TOOLS. Electric drills Common electric drills have the capacity for drilling holes from 1/16” up to 3/4” in diameter The size of an electric drill is usually determined by the capacity of it’s chuck

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power tools
  • Electric drills
    • Common electric drills have the capacity for drilling holes from 1/16” up to 3/4” in diameter
    • The size of an electric drill is usually determined by the capacity of it’s chuck
    • A 1/2” drill is equipped with a chuck that will take a twist drill 1/2” in diameter and no larger
    • Once the hole has been drilled, pull the drill straight out until the twist drill is completely withdrawn from the hole before shutting off the motor
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  • Drill press
    • Used for large and medium type work
    • The two common types are floor and bench-mounted
    • The size of a drill press is based on the maximum thickness of work it is capable of drilling (i.e. a 10” drill press can drill to the center of a 10” work piece)
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  • The drilling speeds may vary and may be as high as

5000 rpm

  • Proper drill press operation
    • Ensure the drill speed is correct for the material being drilled; normally, the harder the material, the higher the drill speed
    • Set the drill table at the proper height (about chest high)
    • Select a sharp bit of the correct size and center it in the drill chuck ensuring that no cutting edge of the twist drill is located in the chuck jaws
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  • Lower the drill bit to where the point will just clear the work and set the stop nuts at that position
  • After marking a pilot point with a center punch, attach the drill bit and secure the work
  • Apply power and lower the drill to the work
  • Once the bit begins to enter the material, raise the bit to recheck the alignment and adjust if necessary
  • Continue drilling until the bit is completely through the material, raise the bit, turn off the drill press and remove the work
  • Clean the drill press after use (do not remove shavings with your bare hands)
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  • Twist drills
    • Commonly called “drill bits”
    • Available in a wide range of sizes, shapes, and materials
    • Come in four size categories:
      • Fractional-inch sizes
        • These sizes begin at 1/64” and increase to 4” or more
        • Smaller bits increase in size by 64th’s
        • Mid sized bits increase in size by 32nd’s
        • Larger sized bits increase in size by 16th’S
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  • Wire-gauge numbers
    • These sizes run from No. 80 (smallest) to No. 1 (largest)
    • All sizes are less than 1/4” and correspond to standard wire sizes
    • Used where precise hole dimensions are required (i.e. tapping threads)
  • Decimal-fraction equivalent sizes
    • Begin at 0.2340” (A) and increase to 0.4062” (Z)
    • The largest size is smaller than 7/16”
    • Allow for sizes in between common fractional sizes
    • Used where exact hole dimensions are required
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      • Metric sizes
        • Use metric numbering system rather than decimal system
        • Allows for smaller sizes without complicated numbering or lettering system
        • There are many conversion charts showing how metric numbers compare to decimal
  • Twist drills also come in various lengths
    • Length will depend upon purpose
    • “screw machine” is the most common length and is what you will most likely use
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  • Common twist drill materials include:
    • High speed steel (HSS)
      • Suitable for drilling most materials
      • Excellent for metal cutting because it will stand up to high temperature
    • Carbon steel
      • Specially ground for drilling wood
      • Should not be used for metal because they tend to be more brittle and less flexible
      • May have special coatings to increase hardness or add self-lubricating properties
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  • Bench grinder
    • Used for grinding operations such as sharpening chisels, screwdrivers, drill bits, and punches
    • Usually has both a medium and fine-grain abrasive wheel
    • May also have a wire brushing wheel, buffing wheel or polishing wheel
      • Each wheel has an eye shield over the work area and a work rest in front of the wheels
      • The rest serves to stabilize the work held against it and should be kept about 1/8” from the wheel
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  • Bench grinder precautions
    • Before applying power to the grinder ensure the grinding wheels are securely attached to the shaft
    • Ensure the wheel is free of cracks and breaks
    • Ensure the grinder is mounted securely
    • Adjust the work rest to the proper angle for the work being done making sure the work cannot be placed between the work rest and the grinding wheel
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    • Bench grinder operation
      • Hold the work securely and do not push it against the wheel
      • Be sure the wheels are completely stopped before touching them
      • As often as possible, cool off the edges of the work being ground to prevent drawing of heat
  • Power tool safety precautions
    • Use personal protective equipment (PPE) such as eye and ear protection, gloves, and/or safety shoes
    • Dress properly for the occasion – no loose fitting clothing, long sleeves, ties, jewelry, etc
    • Attach work to a bench or vise if possible
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  • Never handle the cutting edge of any tool
  • Ensure power switches are turned off before plugging in a tool
  • Ensure that a portable tool has stopped running before laying it down
  • Never remove safety shields or disable safety features
  • Always ensure you have adequate room to work
  • Turn power off and unplug a tool to clear jams or clean debris from the work area
  • Ensure the area around the work area is free of oil, grease or other loose material that could cause poor footing