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Universal Design and Assistive Technologies

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  1. Universal Design and Assistive Technologies LATTe: January 20, 2011

  2. Federal Laws - (ADA, Section 504) • http://uaweb.arizona.edu/why-accessible • Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act (1973) • Americans with Disabilities Act (1990) • 1996 Department of Justice Statement – accessibility of Websites falls under the ADA • UA statement regarding ADA / 504

  3. Section 508 • In 1998, Congress amended the Rehabilitation Act to require Federal agencies to make their electronic and information technology accessible to people with disabilities. Section 508 went into effect in June, 2001. • Under Section 508 (29 U.S.C. ‘ 794d), agencies must give disabled employees and members of the public access to information that is comparable to the access available to others.

  4. Demonstration of JAWS • JAWS is a screen reader program used by the visually impaired to access the computer. • This demonstration quickly shows the importance of an accessible website for individuals with disabilities. Inaccessible page: • http://drc.arizona.edu/webaccess/inaccessible.html Versus an accessible site: • http://drc.arizona.edu/webaccess/accessible.html

  5. Making Your Site Accessible • UA Resource with tutorials and information: http://uaweb.arizona.edu/accessibility-home • Note: Forms and Database Driven information • Database Driven forms – update the form information as user enters information. • For example, I choose United States and the next field becomes a drop-down with the US States. • Watch refreshing of the page and ensure that the focus does not move back to the top of the page.


  6. Web Validation Tools - A Comparison • HiSoftware - http://www.hisoftware.com • CynthiaSays – http://www.cynthiasays.com • Wave - http://www.wave.webaim.org • Color Contrast - http://www.vischeck.com

  7. PowerPoint files • Use “Insert Slide” and choose from the layout options available • Avoid use of text boxes • Graphics / Charts – provide a description (“caption” or alt tag) • Background Color – watch contrast. • Printing issues • PPT as PDF files – Pros/Cons Text Boxes are easy to create and nice for manipulating text layout but they are inaccessible!

  8. PDF Files

  9. Why make PDFs Accessible? • Accessible PDF files allow access to information: • For individuals with disabilities • For individuals with low vision / using Assistive Technology • For individuals using new technologies (PDA’s, phones, blackberries, e-readers, etc.)

  10. Levels of PDF Accessibility • Un-Structured: • 100% inaccessible. • Typically an image-only PDF (scanned to PDF) • Example 1 (Yeats) • Example 2 (A World of Love) • Structured: • Document is partially accessible • Simple, one column text documents are usually fine with this level of accessibility • Example 1 (DRC Brochure)

  11. Levels of PDF Accessibility, cont’d • Tagged: • 100% Accessible • Tags are implemented to identify sections of document, reading order, images, etc. • Example (Online Course Brochure) • Bookmarks Example (All Your Worth)

  12. Demonstration of Text-to-Speech Programs • Readplease – Free (www.readplease.com) • NaturalReader – Free, $50 (pc), $70 (mac) fee for improved voices. www.naturalreaders.com • Kurzweil 3000 - $1500 – all-in-one program • Docmorph – Free text conversion tool http://docmorph.nlm.nih.gov/docmorph • Creation of MP3 Files

  13. Captioning of Media • Automatic Sync Technologies: http://www.automaticsync.com/captionsync • Open-Caption? • Closed-Caption? • Transcript? • Benefits • Example: Saver Heart Center http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EcbgpiKyUbs

  14. E-Reader – Electronic Textbooks • Examples: • Kindle • Adobe eReader (Digital Editions) • I-Pad • Nook • Sony E-Reader

  15. Resources and References • ADA Government Website http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/ada/adahom1.htm • Section 508 http://www.section508.gov/ • WebAIM -- http://www.webaim.org/ • Hricko, Mary. Design and Implementation of Web-Enabled Teaching Tools. Hershey PA: IDEA Group, 2003

  16. Resources and References Cont’d • Thatcher, Jim, Bohman, Paul, et. al. Constructing Accessible Web Sites. Birmingham: Glasshaus, 2002. • Thatcher, Jim, et.al. Web Accessibility: Web Standards and Regulatory Compliance. 2006 (Science Library: TK5105.888.W369 2006) and ONLINE through UA Library • University of Arizona Web Accessibility http://uaweb.arizona.edu/accessibility-home

  17. Resources • Adobe Sites: • http://www.adobe.com/accessibility • http://www.adobe.com/accessibility/products/acrobat/training.html • Word to PDF Tip Sheet: • http://www.adobe.com/accessibility/products/acrobat/pdf/A9-accessible-pdf-from-word.pdf • WebAIM Tutorial: http://www.webaim.org/techniques/acrobat • W3C – PDF Techniques: http://www.w3.org/WAI/GL/WCAG-PDF-TECHS-20010913

  18. York University Tutorial: http://www.yorku.ca/webaccess/pdf/index.html • Ohio State University Web Accessibility Center:http://www.wac.ohio-state.edu/pdf • Book: Web Accessibility: Web Standards and Regulatory Compliance, 2006 by Jim Thatcher • Hard copy available at UA Library – Science: TK5105.888.W369 2006 • Available online through UA Library!!

  19. Contact Information Dawn Hunziker Assistive Technology Coordinator University of Arizona Disability Resource Center Email: hunziker@email.arizona.edu Phone: 520-626-9409