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Sensor Network Applications for Environmental Monitoring. Carla Ellis SAMSI 11-Sept-07. Survey of Deployments. Two in detail: Redwoods and ZebraNet Others Great Duck Island TurtleNet James Reserve Forest Volcanos & earthquakes Aquatic observing systems Localization, real-time tracking.

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survey of deployments
Survey of Deployments
  • Two in detail: Redwoods and ZebraNet
  • Others
    • Great Duck Island
    • TurtleNet
    • James Reserve Forest
    • Volcanos & earthquakes
    • Aquatic observing systems
    • Localization, real-time tracking
great duck island petrel monitoring ucb
Great Duck Island: Petrel MonitoringUCB
  • Goal: build ecological models for breeding preferences of Leach’s Storm Petrel
    • Burrow (nest) occupancy during incubation
    • Differences in the micro-climates of active vs. inactive burrows
    • Environmental conditions during 7 month breeding season
  • Inconspicuous Operation
    • Reduce the “observer effect”
  • Unattended, off-the-grid operation
  • Sensor network
    • 26 burrow motes deployed
    • 12 weather station motes deployed (+2 for monitoring the insides of the base station case)

Burrow Occupancy Detector

turtlenet corner umass
TurtleNet (Corner, Umass)

"Wetness" is a measure of current in the water sensor. This graph shows that the turtle came out of the water to sun itself for only brief periods and went back into the colder water.

Mica2Dot hardware, GPS,

Solar cells on the backs ofsnapping turtles.

james reserve forest cens
James Reserve Forest (CENS)
  • Heterogeneous
  • Robotics
  • Imaging
    • Full motion cameras
    • In nesting boxes
    • Time lapse images
  • Microclimate array& soil moisture
volcano monitoring welsh harvard
Volcano Monitoring (Welsh, Harvard)
  • Motes with seismic sensors deployed on active volcano in Ecuador
  • Science dictates: high fidelity during events, large spatial separation, time synchronization.
  • Nature of the application allows triggered data collection rather than continuous.
macroscope in redwoods sensys 05

Macroscope in RedwoodsSenSys 05

Tolle et al

UC Berkeley Intel Research Berkeley

deployment up a tree
Dense temporal and spatial data collection

44 days from Apr 27 to Jun 10

33 sensor nodes

Sampling every 5 minutes

Temperature, relative humidity, PAR

Deployment Up a Tree
sensor node platform package
Mica2Dot node from Crossbow

4MHz processor

433 MHz radio, 40 Kbps

512 KB Flash

Sensors

Packaging

Sensor Node Platform & Package
task software
TASK Software
  • Duty cycling – node on 4 sec every 5 min
  • Time synchronization
  • Tree route discovery between gateway and nodes
  • TinyDB data collection and querying
  • Data logging in Flash as backup
both logging transmission
Both are good – compensate for the other’s failures

Flash running out of space but transmissions continue

Transmissions stopped but Flash retains those data points

Both Logging & Transmission
biological goal
Long-term & wide ranging zebra herd migration tracking

Associated with data on feeding behavior, heart-rate, body temp.

Biological Goal
why a wireless sensor network approach
Why a Wireless Sensor Network Approach?
  • Traditional radio collars – coarse grain information
  • Sensor nodes (GPS), not networked – usually must retrieve collar to download stored data
  • Satellite tracking – high energy costs, low bitrate
a day in the life of a zebra
A Day in the Life of a Zebra
  • Social structure can be exploited
    • Plains zebra form tight-knit harems (1 male, multiple females). Collar 1 individual and track the group
    • Sometimes form loose herds of multiple harems, often at watering holes
  • Drink water on a daily basis
  • Mostly moving 24 hours a day
collar design
Collar Design

GPS samples every 3 minutes

Detailed activity logs for 3 min every hr

1 year of operation

3-5 lb weight limit

drive by mobile base station
Vandalism is a problem for deploying an array of fixed antennas or base stations

Base station sporadically available

Drive-by Mobile Base Station
peer to peer system design

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Peer to Peer System Design
peer to peer system design1

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Peer to Peer System Design
peer to peer system design2

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peer to peer system design3

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Peer to Peer System Design
implications of collar design
Implications of Collar Design
  • GPS provides precise synchronized clock
    • For avoiding short-range network collisions
  • Assume 5 days battery life between recharging
    • Need 13.5AH to sample (6KB/day), search for peers (6hr/day), search for base station (3 hr/day), and transmitting 640KB of data.
  • 640KB Flash = 300 days of data compressed, 110 days uncompressed
    • Need to accommodate redundancy of data stored from other nodes
homing success rate
Homing Success Rate
  • Fraction of data successfully delivered to base station (goal to eventually get 100% data reported)
  • Simulation study (single radio):
    • Flooding protocol – share data with everyone encountered
    • History protocol – send to “best” peer discovered based on their previous success in delivering to base
    • Direct protocol – not peer-to-peer, just to base
results with constrained bandwidth 12kps
Results with Constrained Bandwidth (12kps)

Short-range, flooding best

Long-range, history best

final design choices
Final Design Choices
  • Storage viewed as effectively infinite
  • 2 radios:
    • one short-range, do flooding
    • other long-range, direct
slide47
Energy in battery powered nodes.
    • Constrain lifetime of nodes, if not recharged
    • Energy harvesting, weight of solar collectors
    • Duty cycling necessary -> clock synchronization
  • Data delivery
    • Missing data
      • Connectivity
        • Routing issues
        • Unsynchronized duty cycles
        • Collisions
      • Dead nodes
    • Outliers
      • Calibration of sensors
slide48
Hierarchy, heterogeneity, mobility
    • Robotics, actuation
  • Packaging
    • Weather effects = dead nodes
    • Weatherproofing – gets in the way of sensors
  • How to deal with massive amounts of data
  • Infrastructure
    • System behavior monitoring
    • Interactive remote control (retasking)
breakouts
Breakouts
  • Form 3 or 4 ad hoc multi-disciplinary groups (outside comfort zone: mix ECE+stat+CS+bio)
  • Discuss one of two topics
    • Research question you might address with Duke Forest data
    • Research study you might design from scratch, its requirements and challenges.
  • Report back at end of class (elect a spokesperson)