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Hannah Reagan 3 rd period. Chapter 32.1 Notes. Mammals. Class Mammalia Have hair and mammary glands (produce milk to nourish the young) Also, mammals breathe air, have four-chambered hearts, and are endotherms that generate body heat internally. Evolution.

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mammals
Mammals
  • Class Mammalia
  • Have hair and mammary glands (produce milk to nourish the young)
  • Also, mammals breathe air, have four-chambered hearts, and are endotherms that generate body heat internally
evolution
Evolution
  • Though you can’t see hair nor mammary glands in fossils, some fossilized mammal characteristics include: lower jaw connected by a joint directly to the skull, teeth that are replaced once in a lifetime, and discrete features of limbs and backbone
  • Mammals descend from reptiles
  • First appeared during late Triassic period; 220 million years ago
body temperature control
Body Temperature Control
  • High metabolic rate
  • Hair
  • Subcutaneous fat: layer of fat located beneath the skin
  • Some have sweat

glands and others

often pant

feeding
Feeding
  • As mammals evolved, the form and function of their jaws and teeth became adapted to eat foods other than insects
  • Because of high metabolic rate, mammals have to eat 10 times more food as a reptile
  • Specialized teeth:

1. incisors

2. canines

3. molars

4. premolars

  • Carnivores have short intestine because digestive enzymes can quickly digest meat
  • Herbivores have long intestine because tough, fibrous plant tissue is hard to break down
  • Rumen: stomach chamber in which newly swallowed plant food is stored and processed
respiration circulation
RespirationCirculation
  • All mammals use lungs
  • Diaphragm: powerful muscle that pulls the bottom of the chest cavity downward, which further increases volume when breathing in
  • 2 separate loops with a four chambered heart
  • Right ventricle and atrium pump oxygen poor blood from body to lungs. Left ventricle and atrium pump oxygen rich blood from lungs to the rest of the body.
excretion
Excretion
  • The kidneys of mammals help maintain homeostasis by filtering urea from the blood, as well as by excreting excess water or retaining needed water.
  • Kidneys also help retain sugars, salts, etc.
  • Kidneys allow mammals to live in different habitats just by being able to stabilize the amount of water in the body efficiently
response
Response
  • Highly developed brains: main parts include cerebrum-thinking and learning, cerebellum-muscular coordination, and medulla oblongata-involuntary body functions
  • The cerebrum outer layer is the cerebral cortex: center of thinking and other complex behaviors
  • Many have well developed sense of smell, sight, and hearing
other super cool fun stuff
Other super cool fun stuff
  • Endocrine glands regulate body activities by releasing chemicals called hormones that affect other organs and tissues
  • Immune systems help stop pathogens from infecting the mammal (includes skin barrier, and specialized cells that recognize and destroy pathogens)
movement
Movement
  • Backbone
  • Shoulder and pelvic girdles
  • Diversity in limb bones of climbers, runners, diggers, flyers, and swimmers. Pictures of limbs on page 826!
reproduction
Reproduction
  • Internal fertilization
  • All newborn mammals feed on their mother’s milk
  • Strong parental care and interaction
1 what is the cerebral cortex
1. What is the cerebral cortex?
  • Covering of the olfactory bulb
  • Outer layer of the cerebrum
  • Helps in excretion
  • Another name for the medulla oblongata
2 what defines a mammal
2. What defines a mammal?
  • Four chambered heart
  • Breathe air
  • Generate their body heat internally
  • All of the above
3 when and about how long ago did the first mammal appear
3. When and about how long ago did the first mammal appear?
  • Triassic Period; 220 million years ago
  • Jurassic Period; 206 million years ago
  • Permian Period; 260 million years ago
  • Carboniferous Period; 330 million years ago
4 what system is the kidney a part of
4.What system is the kidney a part of?
  • Nervous
  • Digestive
  • Excretory
  • Circulatory
5 how do mammals reproduce
5. How do mammals reproduce?
  • Asexual reproduction
  • External fertilization
  • Internal fertilization
  • They don’t reproduce
slide19
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CORRECT!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

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WRONG!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!