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Hannah Reagan 3 rd period. Chapter 32.1 Notes. Mammals. Class Mammalia Have hair and mammary glands (produce milk to nourish the young) Also, mammals breathe air, have four-chambered hearts, and are endotherms that generate body heat internally. Evolution.

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Hannah reagan 3 rd period

Hannah Reagan

3rd period

Chapter 32.1 Notes


  • Class Mammalia

  • Have hair and mammary glands (produce milk to nourish the young)

  • Also, mammals breathe air, have four-chambered hearts, and are endotherms that generate body heat internally


  • Though you can’t see hair nor mammary glands in fossils, some fossilized mammal characteristics include: lower jaw connected by a joint directly to the skull, teeth that are replaced once in a lifetime, and discrete features of limbs and backbone

  • Mammals descend from reptiles

  • First appeared during late Triassic period; 220 million years ago

Body temperature control
Body Temperature Control

  • High metabolic rate

  • Hair

  • Subcutaneous fat: layer of fat located beneath the skin

  • Some have sweat

    glands and others

    often pant


  • As mammals evolved, the form and function of their jaws and teeth became adapted to eat foods other than insects

  • Because of high metabolic rate, mammals have to eat 10 times more food as a reptile

  • Specialized teeth:

    1. incisors

    2. canines

    3. molars

    4. premolars

  • Carnivores have short intestine because digestive enzymes can quickly digest meat

  • Herbivores have long intestine because tough, fibrous plant tissue is hard to break down

  • Rumen: stomach chamber in which newly swallowed plant food is stored and processed

Respiration circulation

  • All mammals use lungs

  • Diaphragm: powerful muscle that pulls the bottom of the chest cavity downward, which further increases volume when breathing in

  • 2 separate loops with a four chambered heart

  • Right ventricle and atrium pump oxygen poor blood from body to lungs. Left ventricle and atrium pump oxygen rich blood from lungs to the rest of the body.


  • The kidneys of mammals help maintain homeostasis by filtering urea from the blood, as well as by excreting excess water or retaining needed water.

  • Kidneys also help retain sugars, salts, etc.

  • Kidneys allow mammals to live in different habitats just by being able to stabilize the amount of water in the body efficiently


  • Highly developed brains: main parts include cerebrum-thinking and learning, cerebellum-muscular coordination, and medulla oblongata-involuntary body functions

  • The cerebrum outer layer is the cerebral cortex: center of thinking and other complex behaviors

  • Many have well developed sense of smell, sight, and hearing

Other super cool fun stuff
Other super cool fun stuff

  • Endocrine glands regulate body activities by releasing chemicals called hormones that affect other organs and tissues

  • Immune systems help stop pathogens from infecting the mammal (includes skin barrier, and specialized cells that recognize and destroy pathogens)


  • Backbone

  • Shoulder and pelvic girdles

  • Diversity in limb bones of climbers, runners, diggers, flyers, and swimmers. Pictures of limbs on page 826!


  • Internal fertilization

  • All newborn mammals feed on their mother’s milk

  • Strong parental care and interaction

1 what is the cerebral cortex
1. What is the cerebral cortex?

  • Covering of the olfactory bulb

  • Outer layer of the cerebrum

  • Helps in excretion

  • Another name for the medulla oblongata

2 what defines a mammal
2. What defines a mammal?

  • Four chambered heart

  • Breathe air

  • Generate their body heat internally

  • All of the above

3 when and about how long ago did the first mammal appear
3. When and about how long ago did the first mammal appear?

  • Triassic Period; 220 million years ago

  • Jurassic Period; 206 million years ago

  • Permian Period; 260 million years ago

  • Carboniferous Period; 330 million years ago

4 what system is the kidney a part of
4.What system is the kidney a part of?

  • Nervous

  • Digestive

  • Excretory

  • Circulatory

5 how do mammals reproduce
5. How do mammals reproduce?

  • Asexual reproduction

  • External fertilization

  • Internal fertilization

  • They don’t reproduce