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An overview of the potential of environmental valuation to inform protected area management. . Dr Mike Christie University of Wales Aberystwyth

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an overview of the potential of environmental valuation to inform protected area management

An overview of the potential of environmental valuation to inform protected area management.

Dr Mike Christie

University of Wales Aberystwyth

ICS-UNIDO workshop ‘Protected area management in Mediterranean coastal areas: the importance of wildlife refugia and corridors within an urban and industrial landscape’

Tunis, 11 – 13 September 2006.

overview
Overview
  • Background
  • Overview of environmental valuation methods
  • Case study: choice experiment valuation study of UK biodiversity
  • Conclusions
background
Background
  • The Mediterranean coastal fringe is host to a wealth of important wildlife and natural areas.
  • However, these areas are under increasing pressure from tourism, industrial development and urban expansion.
background1
Background
  • Policy makers and planners need to make informed trade-offs between:
    • the tangible benefits associated with economic development
      • Accounted for in traditional economic theory in terms of market prices and income and job creation.
    • the intangible benefits (such as biodiversity protection) that are derived from natural resources.
      • Traditional economic markets tend to fail to account for natural resources. Other approaches required to assess this …
environmental valuation
Environmental valuation
  • Although there is often market failure (and therefore no market price) for natural resources
  • … people do attain utility (value) from natural resources, e.g. people like to watch wildlife, or benefit from ecosystem services.
  • It is important that we account for these values when we make decisions about natural resources.
  • Environmental valuation aims to measure the ‘consumer surplus’ (i.e. value) of environmental goods and services.
environmental valuation techniques
Environmental Valuation Techniques
  • ‘Revealed’ preference approaches.
      • Observes actions within surrogate markets (travel, house prices) taken in response to environmental change.
      • Largely restricted to ‘use’ values
      • Examples: Travel Cost Method, Hedonic Price Method.
  • Stated preference approaches.
      • Attempts to elicit preferences by experiments or questionnaires
      • May estimate both use and passive use values
      • Examples: Contingent Valuation Method, Choice experiments.
  • Combined approaches
      • Draws on the benefits of the above approaches
      • Examples: Contingent behaviour
case study valuing uk biodiversity using choice experiments
Case study: Valuing UK biodiversity using choice experiments
  • DEFRA funded project to value the attributes of biological diversity.
  • Christie M, et al. (2006) Valuing the diversity of biodiversity Ecological Economics. 58(2), 304-317.
choice experiments
Choice experiments
  • A survey based, stated preference valuation technique.
  • Respondents are asked to choose from a series of three policy options: A, B, SQ
  • Each option is described in terms of policy attributes and levels (including a price attribute).
choice experiments1
Choice experiments
  • A survey based, stated preference valuation technique.
  • Respondents are asked to choose from a series of three policy options: A, B, SQ
  • Each option is described in terms of policy attributes and levels (including a price attribute).
  • Attribute and levels are assigned using a main effects orthogonal experimental design
  • MNL analysis of respondent choices enables values to be estimated for each policy attribute and level.
survey administration
Survey administration
  • Survey of 800 households: Cambridge and Northumberland.
  • MS PowerPoint presentation (25 minute)
    • Introduced the concept of biodiversity
    • Introduced attributes of biodiversity
    • Description of biodiversity in case study areas
  • Respondents then presented with a series of 5 choice tasks
choice experiment attributes and level
Choice experiment attributes and level
  • Familiar species of wildlife
    • Rare
    • Rare and Common
  • Rare, unfamiliar species of wildlife
    • Slow down decline
    • Recover to stable populations
  • Habitat (species interactions)
    • Restoration
    • Creation
  • Ecosystem services
    • With human impact
    • All services
  • Tax (7 levels)
what do the ce results tell us
What do the CE results tell us?
  • Is there evidence that people value biodiversity?
    • Only 15% of CE respondent chose ‘Do nothing’
  • What aspects of biodiversity do people most value?
    • CE provides evidence that people care about:
      • Common and rare familiar species,
      • Rare unfamiliar species (but not a ‘slow down in decline’),
      • Habitat restoration and re-creation,
      • Ecosystem services which have direct impact on humans (but not those which do not affect humans)
how can the ce results be used to inform policy
How can the CE results be used to inform policy?
  • The CE provides monetary valuations of the benefits arising from natural resources.
  • These values are directly comparable with market values.
  • These values can (and should) be incorporated in cost benefit analysis.
take home message
‘Take home message’
  • There are a suite of environmental valuation techniques available to elicit the ‘intangible’ costs and benefits associated with natural resources.
  • Estimating the economic value of protected areas in the Mediterranean will help to:
    • Demonstrate that these protected areas are valued by people;
    • Through cost benefit analysis, allow policy makers / planners to directly compare the economic value of protecting natural areas with other economic development options.