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Introduction to Zoology. Classification of Animals. Review. Biology is the study of life… So what makes something living?. All living things must:. Be made up of at least 1 cell that contains genetic material (DNA) Reproduce (sexually or asexually)

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introduction to zoology

Introduction to Zoology

Classification of Animals

  • Biology is the study of life…
    • So what makes something living?
all living things must
All living things must:
  • Be made up of at least 1 cell that contains genetic material (DNA)
  • Reproduce (sexually or asexually)
  • Grow (increase in size, mature, develop, etc.)
  • Metabolize (have a need and use for energy)
  • Respond to stimuli
that s all fine and good but when do we get to the animals
That’s all fine and good, but when do we get to the animals?
  • Zoology-the study of animals
    • Two Major Categories:
      • Vertebrates-have a backbone
      • Invertebrates-do not have a backbone
      • Vertebrate or Invertebrate?
characteristics of animals
Characteristics of Animals
  • All multicellular (metazoans)
  • Eukaryotes (cells with nucleus & organelles)
  • Cells do not have a cell wall or chloroplast
  • Ingestive heterotrophs (take in food and internally digest it)
  • Store food reserves as glycogen
besides having the characteristics of living things animals also
Besides having the characteristics of living things, animals also:
  • Carry out the following life processes:

1.) Locomotion:

      • Motile-can move from one location to another on their own
      • Sessile-cannot move from place to place, but do have moving parts



life processes continued


Life Processes continued
  • Ingestion-take in food
  • Digestion-chemical breakdown of food
  • Assimilation- using the substances obtained from food and utilizing it for growth
  • Excretion-waste removal
  • Respiration-taking in O2 and breaking down glucose to release energy
  • So now that we’ve got all these animals, how do we make sense of it all?
    • Taxonomy-Science of classifying organisms and assigning each organism a universally accepted name.
linnaean classification system
Linnaean Classification System
  • Created by Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778)
    • Before Linnaeus, organisms were classified based on their type of locomotion and physical characteristics
      • Problem? Names were too long, and people describe things differently.
  • Utilizes binomial nomenclature- a two

name system (genus and species)

    • Names are in Latin
  • Ex: Homo sapiens
scientific name
Scientific Name
  • First name is genus; second name is species
  • 3 Rules For Scientific Name
    • Italicized or underlined
    • Genus name is Capitalized
    • Species name is lower-case
  • Example: Tursiopstruncatus
the modern classification system
The Modern Classification System
  • 7 Taxa:
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species
kingdom animalia
Kingdom Animalia
  • Has 7 Major Phyla
    • Porifera
    • Cnidaria
    • Annelida
    • Mollusca
    • Arthropoda
    • Echinodermata
    • Chordata
phylum porifera
Phylum Porifera
  • Porifera- “pore bearer”
  • Sponges
  • Simplest of all animals
  • Filter feeders
  • No true tissues or organs
phylum cnidaria
Phylum Cnidaria
  • Includes hydras, sea anemones, jelly fish, and coral
  • Have stinging cells for defense and prey capture
  • Simple body plan (gastrovascular body cavity with one opening)
phylum annelida
Phylum Annelida
  • Annelid- “little ring”
  • Includes marine worms, earthworms, leeches
  • Bodies are segmented
phylum mollusca
Phylum Mollusca
  • Includes snails, octopusses, squids, clams, mussels, conchs, etc.
  • Have a shell (either external or internal)
  • Have a mantle lining the shell
phylum arthropoda
Phylum Arthropoda
  • Arthropoda- “jointed foot”
  • Most diverse group
  • Includes crabs, lobsters, insects, spiders
  • Have an exoskeleton (outer hard covering is their skeleton)
phylum echinodermata
Phylum Echinodermata
  • Includes sea stars, sea urchins, sand dollars, and brittle stars.
  • Radially symmetrical
  • Posess a water vascular system- fluid filled channels that function in gas exchange, locomotion and feeding.
phylum chordata
Phylum Chordata
  • Characterized by the presence of a vertebral column
  • Includes 5 classes
    • Fish
    • Amphibians
    • Reptiles
    • Birds
    • Mammals