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CIS 105 Survey of Computer Information Systems. Essential Concepts and Terminology Study Unit One. Computer Fluency. . The knowledge possessed relating to the digital world, the level of literacy in computer-related skills. CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1. Computer. .

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cis 105 survey of computer information systems

CIS 105Survey of Computer Information Systems

Essential Concepts and Terminology

Study Unit One

computer fluency
Computer Fluency.
  • The knowledge possessed relating to the digital world, the level of literacy in computer-related skills.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

computer
Computer.
  • A device that performs four basic operations: accepts input, processes data, stores data, and produces output.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

program
Program.
  • Instructions that direct how a computer performs tasks.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

input
Input.
  • As a noun, "input" means the data that is conveyed to a computer. As a verb, "input" means to enter data into a computer.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

slide6
Data.
  • In the context of computing and data management, data refers to the symbols that a computer uses to represent facts and ideas.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

processing
Processing.
  • Systematic arithmetical or logical operations that a computer performs to manipulate data.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

output
Output.
  • The results produced by computer processing operations (for example, reports, graphs, and music).

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

storage
Storage.
  • The area in a computer where data is retained to be used again later.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

algorithm
Algorithm.
  • The overall, step-by-step, abstract or general procedure used to solve a problem, typically expressed as pseudocode, structured English, or a flowchart.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

batch processing
Batch Processing.
  • A single computer processing cycle conducted in a fixed sequence.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

hardware
Hardware.
  • Electronic and mechanical devices used for input, output, processing, and storing data. Physical components of a computer and its peripheral devices.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

software
Software.
  • The instructions that set up a computer to do a task, indicate how to interact with a user, and specify how to process data. Programs that run on a computer.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

command
Command.
  • An instruction that the user inputs into the computer to tell it to carry out a task.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

confirmation
Confirmation.
  • A message indicating that a command has been carried out.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

keyboard
Keyboard.
  • An arrangement of letter, number, and special function keys that acts as the primary input device to a computer.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

character
Character.
  • One of a standard set of symbols, such as letters, numbers, and punctuation marks.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

cursor
Cursor.
  • A symbol that marks the user's place on the screen.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

insertion point
Insertion Point.
  • A flashing vertical bar that appears on the screen, indicating where the user can enter text.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

mouse
Mouse.
  • An input device that allows the user to manipulate objects on the screen by moving the mouse on a surface.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

central processing unit cpu
Central Processing Unit (CPU).
  • The main processing unit in a computer, consisting of circuitry that executes instructions to process data.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

system unit
System Unit.
  • The case or box that contains the computer's power supply, storage devices, the main circuit board, input and output connectors, processor, and memory.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

microprocessor
Microprocessor.
  • Complex electronic circuitry fabricated on a silicon wafer. One of several chips on a computer's circuit board.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

motherboard
Motherboard.
  • A computer's main circuit board.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

memory
Memory.
  • The computer circuitry that holds data waiting to be processed.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

ram random access memory
RAM (Random Access Memory).
  • A type of computer memory circuit that holds data, program instructions, and the operating system while the computer is on. RAM capacity is measured in megabytes (MB).

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

megabyte mb
Megabyte. (MB)
  • Approximately one million bytes; exactly 1,048,576 bytes.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

expansion slot
Expansion Slot.
  • A socket or "slot" on a PC motherboard designed to hold a circuit board called an expansion card.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

expansion card
Expansion Card.
  • A circuit board that is plugged into a slot on a PC motherboard to add extra functions, devices, or ports. Also called an expansion board.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

peripheral devices
Peripheral Devices.
  • Components and equipment that expand a computer's input, output, and storage capabilities, e.g., a printer or scanner.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

monitor
Monitor.
  • A display device that forms an image by converting electrical signals from the computer into points of colored light on a display.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

storage devices
Storage Devices.
  • The physical material used to store computer data, such as a floppy disk, a hard disk, or a CD-ROM.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

magnetic storage
Magnetic storage.
  • The recording of data onto disks or tape by magnetizing particles of an oxide-based surface coating.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

optical storage
Optical Storage.
  • A means of recording data as light and dark spots on a CD, DVD, or other optical media.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

read only
Read-Only.
  • An indication that a computer can retrieve data from a storage medium such as a CD-ROM, but cannot write new data onto it.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

floppy disk
Floppy Disk.
  • A removable magnetic storage medium, typically 3.5" in size with a capacity of 1.44 MB.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

zip disk
Zip Disk.
  • A high-capacity floppy disk manufactured by Iomega Corporation, frequently used for back-ups. Available in 100 and 250 MB capacities.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

gigabyte gb
Gigabyte. (GB)
  • Approximately one billion bytes; exactly 1,073,741,842 bytes.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

cd rom drive
CD-ROM Drive.
  • A storage device that uses laser technology to read data from a CD-ROM.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

slide40
DVD.
  • An optical storage medium similar in appearance and technology to a CD-ROM but with higher storage capacity. The acronym stands for "digital video disc" or "digital versatile disc."

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

dvd rom
DVD-ROM.
  • A DVD disk that contains data permanently stamped on the disk surface.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

network server
Network Server.
  • A computer connected to a network (two or more connected computers) that "serves," or distributes, resources to the network users.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

modem
Modem.
  • A device that sends and receives data to and from computers over telephone lines.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

network interface card
Network Interface Card.
  • NIC. A small circuit board that sends data from a workstation out over a network and receives incoming data for a workstation.
local area network lan
Local Area Network (LAN).
  • An interconnected group of computers and peripherals located within a relatively limited area, such as a building or a campus.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

personal computer pc
Personal Computer (PC).
  • A microcomputer that uses the Windows software and contains an Intel-compatible microprocessor.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

desktop computer
Desktop Computer.
  • A computer that is built around a single microprocessor chip and is small enough to fit on a desk.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

notebook computer
Notebook Computer.
  • A small lightweight portable computer that usually runs on battery power. Sometimes called a laptop.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

supercomputer
Supercomputer.
  • The fastest and most expensive type of computer, capable of processing more than one trillion instructions per second.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

mainframe
Mainframe.
  • A large, fast, and expensive computer generally used by large organizations to provide centralized storage processing and management for large amounts of data.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

terminal
Terminal.
  • A device with a keyboard and a monitor, used for input and output, but not for processing.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

minicomputer
Minicomputer.
  • A midrange computer, somewhat larger than a microcomputer, that can carry out processing tasks for many simultaneous user terminals.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

programming
Programming.
  • The process of creating applications or programs for an information system using a programming language or application development tool (also called software engineering).

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

programming language
Programming Language.
  • A special purpose language that enables computer processes.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

source code
Source Code.
  • Computer instructions as written in a high-level language by a programmer.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

object code
Object Code.
  • The instructions that result from compiling source code, code version that the computer reads.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

compiler
Compiler.
  • Software that translates a program written in a high-level language into low-level instructions before the program is executed.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

system software
System Software.
  • Computer programs that help the computer carry out essential operating tasks.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

application software
Application Software.
  • Computer programs that help you perform a specific task such as word processing. Also called application programs, applications, or programs.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

operating system os
Operating System (OS).
  • The software that controls the computer's use of its hardware resources, such as memory and disk storage space, and provides support for running application software.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

user interface
User Interface.
  • The software and hardware that enable people to interact with computers.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

command line interface
Command-Line Interface.
  • A type of user interface that requires the user to type in commands.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

syntax
Syntax.
  • Specifications or rules for the sequence and punctuation of command words and parameters.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

graphical user interface gui
Graphical User Interface (GUI) .
  • A type of user interface that features on-screen objects such as menus and icons, manipulated by a mouse. Abbreviated GUI (pronounced "gooey").

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

utility programs
Utility Programs.
  • A subcategory of system software designed to augment the operating system by providing ways for a computer user to control the allocation and use of hardware resources.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

computer virus
Computer Virus.
  • A rogue program that attaches itself to a file, reproduces, and spreads from one file to another, destroying data, displaying an irritating message, or otherwise disrupting computer operations.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

office suite
Office Suite.
  • A number of application programs that are packaged together and sold as a unit.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

word processing software
Word Processing Software.
  • Computer programs that assist the user in producing documents such as reports, letters, papers, and manuscripts.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

spreadsheet software
Spreadsheet Software.
  • Software for creating electronic worksheets that hold data in cells and perform calculations based on that data.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

database software
Database Software.
  • The application software used to create and manage a database, and display meaningfully organized information.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

presentation software
Presentation Software.
  • Software that provides tools to combine text, graphics, graphs, animation, and sound into a series of electronic "slides" that can be output on a projector or as overhead transparencies, paper copies, or 35 mm slides.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

www world wide web
WWW (World Wide Web).
  • The global network of computer networks enabling hundreds of millions of connected users to access trillions of pages of information.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

isp internet service provider
ISP (Internet Service Provider).
  • A company that provides Internet access to businesses, organizations, and individuals.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

e mail
E-Mail.
  • Messages that are transmitted between computers over a communications network. Short for electronic mail.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

ftp file transfer protocol
FTP (File Transfer Protocol).
  • The set of rules enabling exchange of computer files via the Internet.

CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 1

end of study unit 1
End of Study Unit 1.

Return to first slide.

Move to Study Unit 2.

CIS 105 Home Page.

Created by James Q. Jacobs