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CHAPTER 1 CELLULAR STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION. SUB TOPIC. CELL DEFINITION ANIMAL AND PLANT CELL CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION COMPARISON BETWEEN ANIMAL AND PLANT CELLS. QUIZ TIME. LEARNING OBJECTIVE. By the end of this lesson, students should be able to:

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sub topic
SUB TOPIC

CELL DEFINITION

ANIMAL AND PLANT CELL

CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

COMPARISON BETWEEN ANIMAL AND PLANT CELLS

QUIZ TIME

learning objective
LEARNING OBJECTIVE

By the end of this lesson, students should be able to:

  • Understanding cell structure and function
  • Recognize the relationship between structure and function in cell
  • Explore the role of organells
  • Compare animal and plants cells
  • Compare the structure and function of specialized cells
cell definition
CELL DEFINITION
  • The smallest structural unit of an organism that is capable of independent functioning, consisting of one or more nuclei, cytoplasm, and various organelles, all surrounded by a semipermeable cell membrane.
  • Two main forms of cells :

Prokaryotic cells – simpler

and smaller

Eukaryotic cells – complex

and big

VEDIO CLIP

NEXT

animal and plant cell
ANIMAL AND PLANT CELL
  • Plant and animal cells have nearly all of the most important cell structures in common.
  • For example, both plant and animal cells have a nucleus, which contains the cell's genetic material, or DNA.
  • Plant and animal cells also have some of the same organelles floating in the cytoplasm, the fluid-filled region between the cell membrane and the nucleus

NEXT

Animal cell picture under microscope

Plant cell picture under microscope

VEDIO CLIP

cell structure and function
CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

Animal Cell Structure :

Centrioles - Centrioles are self-replicating organelles made up of nine bundles of microtubules and are found only in animal cells. They appear to help in organizing cell division, but aren't essential to the process.

Cilia and Flagella - For single-celled eukaryotes, cilia and flagella are essential for the locomotion of individual organisms. In multicellular organisms, cilia function to move fluid or materials past an immobile cell as well as moving a cell or group of cells.

slide10

The centriole structure

The cell with cilia and flagella

slide11

Endoplasmic Reticulum - The endoplasmic reticulum is a network of sacs that manufactures, processes, and transports chemical compounds for use inside and outside of the cell. It is connected to the double-layered nuclear envelope, providing a pipeline between the nucleus and the cytoplasm.

Endosomes and Endocytosis - Endosomes are membrane-bound vesicles, formed via a complex family of processes collectively known as endocytosis, and found in the cytoplasm of virtually every animal cell. The basic mechanism of endocytosis is the reverse of what occurs during exocytosis or cellular secretion. It involves the invagination (folding inward) of a cell's plasma membrane to surround macromolecules or other matter diffusing through the extracellular fluid.

slide13

Golgi Apparatus - The Golgi apparatus is the distribution and shipping department for the cell's chemical products. It modifies proteins and fats built in the endoplasmic reticulum and prepares them for export to the outside of the cell.

Intermediate Filaments - Intermediate filaments are a very broad class of fibrous proteins that play an important role as both structural and functional elements of the cytoskeleton. Ranging in size from 8 to 12 nanometers, intermediate filaments function as tension-bearing elements to help maintain cell shape and rigidity.

slide14

The golgi apparatus

The intermediate filament

slide15

Lysosomes - The main function of these microbodies is digestion. Lysosomes break down cellular waste products and debris from outside the cell into simple compounds, which are transferred to the cytoplasm as new cell-building materials.

Microfilaments - Microfilaments are solid rods made of globular proteins called actin. These filaments are primarily structural in function and are an important component of the cytoskeleton.

Microtubules - These straight, hollow cylinders are found throughout the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells (prokaryotes don't have them) and carry out a variety of functions, ranging from transport to structural support.

slide16

The lysosome structure

The microfilament structure

slide17

Mitochondria - Mitochondria are oblong shaped organelles that are found in the cytoplasm of every eukaryotic cell. In the animal cell, they are the main power generators, converting oxygen and nutrients into energy.

Nucleus - The nucleus is a highly specialized organelle that serves as the information processing and administrative center of the cell. This organelle has two major functions: it stores the cell's hereditary material, or DNA, and it coordinates the cell's activities, which include growth, intermediary metabolism, protein synthesis, and reproduction (cell division).

slide18

The mitochondria

The nucleus

slide19

Peroxisomes - Microbodies are a diverse group of organelles that are found in the cytoplasm, roughly spherical and bound by a single membrane. There are several types of microbodies but peroxisomes are the most common.

Plasma Membrane - All living cells have a plasma membrane that encloses their contents. In prokaryotes, the membrane is the inner layer of protection surrounded by a rigid cell wall. Eukaryotic animal cells have only the membrane to contain and protect their contents. These membranes also regulate the passage of molecules in and out of the cells.

Ribosomes - All living cells contain ribosomes, tiny organelles composed of approximately 60 percent RNA and 40 percent protein. In eukaryotes, ribosomes are made of four strands of RNA. In prokaryotes, they consist of three strands of RNA.

slide20

The plasma membrane

The basic structure of peroxisome

The ribosome in DNA structure

cell structure and function1
CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

Plant Cell Structure :

Cell Wall - Like their prokaryotic ancestors, plant cells have a rigid wall surrounding the plasma membrane. It is a far more complex structure, however, and serves a variety of functions, from protecting the cell to regulating the life cycle of the plant organism.

Chloroplasts - The most important characteristic of plants is their ability to photosynthesize, in effect, to make their own food by converting light energy into chemical energy. This process is carried out in specialized organelles called chloroplasts.

slide23

The cell wall

The chloroplast

slide24

Endoplasmic Reticulum - The endoplasmic reticulum is a network of sacs that manufactures, processes, and transports chemical compounds for use inside and outside of the cell. It is connected to the double-layered nuclear envelope, providing a pipeline between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. In plants, the endoplasmic reticulum also connects between cells via the plasmodesmata.

Golgi Apparatus - The Golgi apparatus is the distribution and shipping department for the cell's chemical products. It modifies proteins and fats built in the endoplasmic reticulum and prepares them for export as outside of the cell.

slide25

The golgi apparatus

The endoplasmic reticulum

slide26

Mitochondria - Mitochondria are oblong shaped organelles found in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells. In plant cells, they break down carbohydrate and sugar molecules to provide energy, particularly when light isn't available for the chloroplasts to produce energy.

Nucleus - The nucleus is a highly specialized organelle that serves as the information processing and administrative center of the cell. This organelle has two major functions: it stores the cell's hereditary material, or DNA, and it coordinates the cell's activities, which include growth, intermediary metabolism, protein synthesis, and reproduction (cell division).

slide27

The mitochondria

The nucleus

slide28

Microfilaments- Microfilaments are solid rods made of globular proteins called actin. These filaments are primarily structural in function and are an important component of the cytoskeleton.

Microtubules - These straight, hollow cylinders are found throughout the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells (prokaryotes don't have them) and carry out a variety of functions, ranging from transport to structural support.

slide30

Peroxisomes - Microbodies are a diverse group of organelles that are found in the cytoplasm, roughly spherical and bound by a single membrane. There are several types of microbodies but peroxisomes are the most common.

Plasmodesmata - Plasmodesmata are small tubes that connect plant cells to each other, providing living bridges between cells.

Plasma Membrane - All living cells have a plasma membrane that encloses their contents. In prokaryotes and plants, the membrane is the inner layer of protection surrounded by a rigid cell wall. These membranes also regulate the passage of molecules in and out of the cells.

slide31

The plasma membrane

Peroxisome

The tobacco plasmodesmata structure

slide32

Ribosomes - All living cells contain ribosomes, tiny organelles composed of approximately 60 percent RNA and 40 percent protein. In eukaryotes, ribosomes are made of four strands of RNA. In prokaryotes, they consist of three strands of RNA.

Vacuole - Each plant cell has a large, single vacuole that stores compounds, helps in plant growth, and plays an important structural role for the plant.

slide33

The ribosome

The vacuole

comparison between animal and plant cells
COMPARISON BETWEEN ANIMAL AND PLANT CELLS
  • The table below shows the main structural differences between animal and plant cells.
  • The differences are only in eukaryotic cells with the main organells present.
quiz time
QUIZ TIME
  • What is a function of the following organelles:  cell membrane,  vacuole, golgi, lysosome,  mitochondria,  nucleus,  nucleolus,  rough ER,  ribosome, chromosome, vesicles,  smooth ER and  nuclear envelope.
  • Name two internal structures of mitochondria and describe their functions.
  • Name one structural feature of the rough ER .
  • What organelle is rich in RNA.
  • What organelle is characterized by:
    • flattened stacks of membranes 
    • storage of pigments or starch
    • has ribosomes embedded in its surface             
    • a membrane bound enzyme bag

WEBANSWER

thank you
Thank you

Prepared by :

AZMIRA BINTI ABDUL KADIR (95182)

LING ON KEI (95191)

PusatPengajianIlmuPendidikan

UniversitiSains Malaysia

11800 Minden

Penang