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Chapter 4: Cellular Form and Function

Chapter 4: Cellular Form and Function. Development of the cell theory: Hooke in 1663, observed cork (plant): named the cell Schwann in 1800’s states: all animals are made of cells Pasteur’s work with bacteria ~ 1860 disproved idea of spontaneous generation (living things from nonliving)

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Chapter 4: Cellular Form and Function

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  1. Chapter 4: Cellular Form and Function Development of the cell theory: • Hooke in 1663, observed cork (plant): named the cell • Schwann in 1800’s states: all animals are made of cells • Pasteur’s work with bacteria ~ 1860 disproved idea of spontaneous generation (living things from nonliving) • Modern cell theory emerged by 1900

  2. Modern Cell Theory • All organisms composed of cells and cell products. • A cell is the simplest structural and functional unit of life. There are no smaller subdivisions of a cell or organism that, in themselves, are alive. • An organism’s structure and all of its functions are ultimately due to the activities of its cells. • Cells come only from preexisting cells, not from nonliving matter. All life, therefore, traces its ancestry to the same original cells. • Because of this common ancestry, the cells of all species have many fundamental similarities in their chemical composition and metabolic mechanisms.

  3. Cell Shapes • thin, flat, angular contours • round to oval • irregular angular shapes, > 4 sides • disc shaped

  4. Cell Shapes 2 • squarish • thick middle, tapered ends • taller than wide • long, slender Stellate • nerve cells have extensions, look starlike

  5. Epithelial Cell Surfaces • Epithelial cells line organ surfaces • Basal surface • cell rests on this lower surface • Lateral surface • the sides of the cell • Apical surface • exposed upper surface

  6. Cell Size • Human cell size • most range from 10 - 15 µm • egg cells (very large)100 µm diameter, visible to naked eye • nerve cell over 1 meter, muscle cell up to 30 cm, (too slender to be seen) • Limitations on cell size • as cell enlarges, volume increases faster than surface area so the need for increased nutrients and waste removal exceeds ability of membrane surface to exchange

  7. Cell Surface Area and Volume

  8. Evolving Perspective on Cells • Early study with light microscope revealed • surface membrane, nucleus and cytoplasm • Electron microscopes have much higher resolution and revealed much greater details, such as the cell ultrastructure of the cytoplasm • fibers, passageways and compartments, and organelles surrounded by cytosol (a clear gelatinous component also called intracellular fluid)

  9. Cell Structure

  10. Cell Structure 2

  11. Plasma Membrane • Defines cell boundaries • Controls interactions with other cells • Controls passage of materials in and out of cell • Appears as pair of dark parallel lines around cell (viewed with the electron microscope) • intracellular face - side faces cytoplasm • extracellular face - side faces outwards • Structure described by fluid-mosaic theory • arrangement of mobile globular proteins embedded in an oily film of phospholipids

  12. Plasma Membrane Preview

  13. Membrane Lipids • Lipids constitute • 90 to 99% of the plasma membrane • Glycolipids • 5% of the lipids, found only on extracellular face, contribute to glycocalyx

  14. Membrane Lipids 2 • Cholesterol • 20% of the lipids, affects membrane fluidity (low conc.. more rigid, high conc.. more fluid) • Phospholipid bilayer • 75% of the lipids, with hydrophilic heads (phosphate) on each side and hydrophobic tails in the center • motion of these molecules creates membrane fluidity, an important quality that allows self repair

  15. Membrane Proteins • Proteins constitute • only 1 to 10% of the plasma membrane, but they are larger and account for half its weight • Integral (transmembrane) proteins • pass through membrane, have hydrophobic regions embedded in phospholipid bilayer and hydrophilic regions extending into intra- and extracellular fluids • most are glycoproteins, conjugated with oligosaccharides on the extracellular side of membrane

  16. Membrane Proteins 2 • Integral proteins (cont.) • may cross the plasma membrane once or multiple times • Peripheral proteins • adhere to intracellular surface of membrane • anchors integral proteins to cytoskeleton

  17. Membrane Protein Functions • Receptors • Second messenger systems • Enzymes • Channel proteins • Carriers and pumps • Motor molecules • Cell-identity markers • Cell-adhesion molecules

  18. Protein Functions - Receptors • Cells communicate with chemical signals that cannot enter target cells • Receptors bind these messengers (hormones, neurotransmitters) • Each receptor is usually specific for one messenger

  19. Second Messenger System • A messenger (epinephrine) binds to a receptor 1 • Receptor releases a G protein 2 • G protein binds to an enzyme, adenylate cyclase, which converts ATP to cAMP, the 2nd messenger 3 • cAMP activates a kinase 4 • Kinases add Pi, activates or inactivates other enzymes

  20. Enzymes in Plasma Membrane • Break down chemical messengers to stop their effects • Final stages of starch and protein digestion in small intestine • Involved in producing second messengers (cAMP)

  21. Protein Functions - Channel Proteins • Formed by integral proteins • Channels are constantly open, allow water and hydrophilic solutes in and out

  22. Protein Functions - Channel Proteins 2 • Gates open to three type of stimulants • ligand-regulated gates: bind to chemical messenger • voltage-regulated gates: potential changes across plasma membrane • mechanically regulated gates:physical stress such as stretch and pressure • Gates control passage of electrolytes so are important in nerve signals and muscle contraction

  23. Protein Functions - Motor Molecules • A filamentous protein that arises deep in the cytoplasm and pulls on membrane proteins causing movement: • within a cell (organelles) • of a cell (WBC’s) • shape of cell (cell division, phagocytosis)

  24. Protein Functions - Carriers • Integral proteins that bind to solutes and transfer them across membrane • Carriers that consume ATP are called pumps

  25. Protein Functions - Cell-identity Markers • Glycoproteins contribute to the glycocalyx, a surface coating that acts as a cell’s identity tag

  26. Protein Functions - Cell-adhesion Molecules • Membrane proteins that adhere cells together and to extracellular material

  27. Glycocalyx • Surface of animal cells • CHO moieties of membrane glycoproteins and glycolipids that retains a film of water • Functions • immune response to infection and cancer • basis of tissue transplant compatibility • cellular uptake of water, dissolved solutes • assists in cell adhesion, fertilization and embryonic development

  28. Microvilli • Structure • extensions of plasma membrane (1-2m) that increase surface area for absorptive cells (by 15- 40x in intestine, kidney) • Brush border • on some cells, they are very dense and appear as a fringe on apical cell surface • Milking action • protein filaments (actin) attach from the tip of microvillus to its base, anchors to a protein mesh in the cytoplasm called the terminal web and can shorten pushing absorbed contents into cell

  29. Cross Section of a Microvillus

  30. Cilia • Hairlike processes 7-10m long, 50-200 on cell surface move mucus, egg cells • Covered by saline layer created by chloride pumps • Cilia beat in waves, sequential power strokes followed by recovery strokes

  31. Cross Section of a Cilium

  32. Cilia 2 • Axoneme has a 9+2 structure of microtubules • 2 central microtubules stop at cell surface • 9 pairs of peripheral microtubules continue into cell as a basal body that acts as an anchor • dynein (motor protein) arms on one pair of peripheral microtubules crawls up adjacent pair bending cilia • Sensory cells • some cilia lose motility and are involved in vision, smell, hearing and balance

  33. Cilium At Cell Surface

  34. Flagella • Long whiplike structure that has an axoneme identical to that of a cilium • Only functional flagellum in humans is the tail of the sperm

  35. Nucleus • Largest organelle • Nuclear envelope surrounds nucleus with two unit membranes • Contains DNA, the genetic program for a cell’s structure and function

  36. Cell Structure

  37. Endoplasmic Reticulum • Rough ER • extensive sheets of parallel unit membranes with cisternae between them and covered with ribosomes, continuous with nuclear envelope • function in protein synthesis and production of cell membranes • Smooth ER • lack ribosomes, cisternae more tubular and branch more extensively, continuous with rough ER • function in lipid synthesis, detoxification, calcium storage

  38. Endoplasmic Reticulum Diagram

  39. Ribosomes • Small dark granules of protein and RNA free in cytosol or on surface of rough ER • Interpret the genetic code and synthesize polypeptides

  40. Golgi Complex • Synthesizes CHO’s, processes proteins from RER and packages them into golgi vesicles • Golgi vesicles • irregular sacs near golgi complex that bud off cisternae • some become lysosomes, some fuse with plasma membrane and some become secretory vesicles • Secretory vesicles • store a cell product for later release

  41. Lysosomes • Package of enzymes in a single unit membrane, variable in shape • Functions • intracellular digestion - hydrolyze proteins, nucleic acids, complex carbohydrates, phospholipids and other substrates • autophagy - the digestion of worn out organelles and mitochondrion • autolysis - programmed cell death • glucose mobilization - lysosomes in liver cells break down glycogen

  42. Peroxisomes • Appear similar to lysosomes, lighter in color • Abundant in liver and kidney • Function • neutralize free radicals • produce H2O2 in process of alcohol detoxification and killing bacteria • break down excess H2O2 with the enzyme catalase • break down fatty acids into acetyl groups

  43. Mitochondrion • Double unit membrane • Inner membrane contains folds called cristae • ATP synthesized by enzymes on cristae from energy extracted from organic compounds • Space between cristae called the matrix • contains ribosomes and small, circular DNA (mitochondrial DNA) • Reproduce independently of cell and live for 10 days

  44. Mitochondrion, Electron Micrograph

  45. Centrioles • Short cylindrical assembly of microtubules, arranged in nine groups of three microtubules each • Two centrioles, perpendicular to each other, lie near the nucleus in an area called the centrosome • these play a role in cell division • Other single centrioles migrate to plasma membrane forming basal bodies of cilia or flagella • two microtubules of each triplet elongate to form the nine pairs of peripheral microtubules of the axoneme

  46. Perpendicular Centrioles Diagram

  47. Cytoskeleton • Microfilaments • made of protein actin, form network on cytoplasmic side of plasma membrane called the membrane skeleton • supports phospholipids of p.m., supports microvilli and produces cell movement, and with myosin causes muscle contraction • Intermediate fibers • in junctions that hold epithelial cells together and resist stresses on a cell • Microtubules

  48. Microtubules • Cylinder of 13 parallel strands called protofilaments • (a long chain of globular protein called tubulin) • Hold organelles in place and maintain cell shape • Form tracks to guide organelles and molecules to specific destinations in a cell • Form axonemes of cilia and flagella, centrioles, basal bodies and mitotic spindle • Not all are permanent structures and can be disassembled and reassembled where needed

  49. Microtubule Diagram

  50. Cytoskeleton Diagram

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