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Reconstruction part 2. Andrew Johnson. Johnson really despised wealth and power. He was a racist though and thought the south should be managed by white men only.

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andrew johnson
Andrew Johnson
  • Johnson really despised wealth and power.

He was a racist though and thought the south should be managed by white men only.

Johnson tried to break the planters power by excluding high-ranking Confederates and land owners from taking the oath needed for voting privileges.

black codes
Black Codes
  • Laws passed by states and municipalities denying many rights of citizenship to free black people.
  • Showed the unwillingness of southern whites to accept the full meaning of freedom for African Americans.
  • Designed to keep people as close to slavery as possible.
civil rights act of 1866
Civil Rights Act of 1866

Act gave full citizenship to African Americans.

Overturned Dred Scott and the black codes.

All persons born in U.S (except Indians) as national citizens, and included various rights like to buy and sell property, enforce contracts, to sue, and to give evidence.

what happened
What happened?
  • Andrew Johnson vetoed the bill.
  • He said the national government could not protect African American Civil Rights, he said it was a stride toward centralization.
  • The congress voted and overrode his veto.
fourteenth amendment
Fourteenth Amendment

Its Citizenship clause provides a broad definition of citizenship that overruled Dred Scot v. Sandford (1857).

Its Due Process Clause prohibits state and local governments from depriving persons of life, liberty, or property without certain steps.

Its Equal Protection Clause requires each state to provide equal protection under the law to all people within its jurisdiction.

waving the bloody shirt
“Waving the Bloody Shirt”
  • Was a campaign strategy.
  • Reminding northern voters of the hundreds of thousands of Yankee soldiers left dead or maimed by the war.
  • Republicans increased their majority in both the house and the senate.
u s grant elected president
U.S Grant elected President
  • Was a Civil War hero and won by only 306,000 votes.
  • About 6 million people voted and more than 500,000 of them were African Americans.
  • 9 out of 10 blacks voted for Grant.
video clip
Video clip
  • - history-of-kkk
  • KU Klux Klan
  • Perhaps the most prominent of the vigilante groups that terrorized black people in the south during the reconstruction era.
  • Founded by Confederate veterans in 1866.
  • After a period of decline, white Protestant nativist groups revived the Klan in the early 20th century, burning crosses and staging rallies, parades and marches denouncing immigrants, Catholics, Jews, blacks and organized labor. The civil rights movement of the 1960s also saw a surge of Ku Klux Klan activity, including bombings of black schools and churches and violence against black and white activists in the South.
what the kkk did
What the KKK did?
  • Disguised in white sheets, armed with guns and whips. They made nighttime raids on horseback.
  • They flogged, beat, and murdered freed people.
  • They intimidated voters and silenced political activists.
video clip1
Video clip
  • - legacy-of-the-civil-war
the fifteenth amendment
The Fifteenth Amendment
  • The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
  • So did everyone have the right to vote?
  • To get into the Union the final states had to ratify 14th and 15th amendment before being accepted.

- refers to a traveler who arrives in a new region with only a carpetbag of possessions, and who attempts to profit from or gain control over his new surroundings, often against the will or consent of the original inhabitants.

Southern’s saw them as get rich quick people. Played a large role in politics.

  • Southern whites, small land owning farmers and well-off merchants and planters, who supported the southern Republican party during reconstruction.
different goals
Different Goals
  • Scalawags, carpetbaggers, and African Americans all had different goals from reconstruction.
  • This led to a lack of unity in the Republican party.
  • Equal Rights?
southern attitude
Southern attitude
  • Blacks new status required fundamental change in southern whites beliefs. This was hard!!!
  • Many southerners refused to accept blacks new status in society.
  • They resisted the idea of equal rights for 100 years.
african americans improvement
African Americans Improvement
  • African Americans founded their own churches. Churches were a place where Blacks had full control.
  • In most southern states, the first public school system was established by reconstruction governments.
  • African churches worked to create a lot of these schools.
hiram revels1
Hiram Revels
  • Was the first African American senator.
  • Of 125 Southerners elected to Congress during reconstruction, 16 were African Americans.

African Americans also served in local and state positions.

fading reconstruction
Fading Reconstruction
  • KKK
  • Amnesty Act 1872- returned the right to vote and right to hold federal and state offices to former confederates.
  • Freedman’s bureau also expired this year.
  • South gained power again.
end of reconstruction
End of Reconstruction
  • Five year economic depression hurt reconstruction plans.
  • Reconstruction ended with the election of Rutherford Hayes.
  • Reconstruction ended without much real progress against discrimination. Amendments were its greatest success.