Survey Design Part 2 Produced in Collaboration between World Bank Institute and the Development Data Group (DECDG)
C. Who should be measured (units)? What unit of measurement should be used? • Businesses are inappropriate for labor force surveys. • Not able to provide demographic detail needed • Not able to report on other necessary details needed for measurement • Enrollment of children • Earnings and occupations of other household members www.gwu.edu
C. Who should be measured (units)? What unit of measurement should be used? (continued) • Households, rather than individuals or families, are generally the best unit of measurement. • If you survey individuals, you lose information on the characteristics of other people who live in the household. • Presence and school enrollment of children would be missed • Impact of a spouse being absent or other family members being present could not be measured.
C. Who should be measured (units)? What unit of measurement should be used? (continued) • Families are sometimes bigger than households. • Multiple families live together in one household. • People who do not live together have less of an impact on labor force decisions than those who do • Unrelated people who live together are also a household.
C. Who should be measured (units)? Who should be included in the household? • Anyone who usually lives there and does not have a usual residence elsewhere. • Include all members of household on roster • Collect all demographic details for each member • Some questions only make sense for people over a certain age. • Marital status • Employment
C. Who should be measured (units)? Who should be included in the household? (continued) • It is okay to ask questions for a broader age range than ILO standards because once you have age, you can make tabulations of different age groups. • Generally, only the civilian non-institutional population is surveyed. • People living in hospitals and prisons are also usually inaccessible and may not be capable of answering the survey.
C. Who should be measured (units)? Who is the head of household? • In most cases, the head of the household is the person who manages the income earned and expenses incurred by the household, and who is the most knowledgeable about other members of the household. • The head of household does not have to be a man or the oldest person. • The head of household is usually an adult but it may be a child
D. When? Frequency and Timing How often should the survey be conducted? • Once • Does the season matter? Rain, migration, ability to travel, and availability of respondents might vary. • More than once • Annually • Quarterly • Monthly • Seasonally www.cheetah.org
D. When? Frequency and Timing How often should the survey be conducted? (continued) • Annual surveys should be conducted at the same time each year • Eliminate impacts of seasonal patterns • Quarterly and monthly surveys may allow researchers to see the impacts of these seasonal shifts
E. Where? Areas Is the survey intended to be national or subnational? • If subnational: • What area will it cover? • Why only that area? • Might there be a desire to expand it later? • If national: • Are there weather, seasonal, or geographic differences that need to be considered? • Are there tribal or ethnic differences? • Are there different household structures, such as polygamy? • Are there urban and rural areas?
E. Where? Areas Whenever possible, a survey should be designed to be used anywhere in the country and by all groups. This allows for maximum data comparability
F. How will we measure these concepts? (survey type) Will the survey be self administered? • Self administered surveys require: • literacy • internet access if they are to be conducted online • timely postal service if they are to be conducted by mail • These requirements must span all segments of society to avoid bias. • Efficient means of follow up on non-responses are also required.
F. How will we measure these concepts? (survey type) Will the survey be interviewer administered? • Interviewer administered surveys: • require interviewers to be able to reach respondents • do not require respondent literacy • Interviewer administered surveys may be: • Computer assisted (on a laptop or handheld) • Paper based
F. How will we measure these concepts? (survey type) Considerations when determining survey method include: • Literacy of respondents and interviewers • Ability to follow skip patterns • A self administered survey requires the most of respondents • A paper based, interviewer administered survey requires the most of interviewers • A computer assisted, interviewer administered survey requires the least of both
F. How will we measure these concepts? (survey type) Considerations when determining survey method include: • Data quality • Self administered surveys have the highest risk of errors • Computer assisted surveys eliminate improper skips, problems with reading handwriting, and errors in data entry from paper questionnaires. • Expense • Enumerators, travel, printing, data entry staff, postage, training, etc