protein synthesis
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Protein Synthesis

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 15

Protein Synthesis - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 77 Views
  • Uploaded on

Protein Synthesis. By: Sophie gollan. In this experiment we modelled the structure of DNA and the processes involved in protein synthesis from the information in the DNA. DNA structure. DNA - a double stranded helix molecule which consists of subunits called nucleotides.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Protein Synthesis' - uma


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
protein synthesis

Protein Synthesis

By: Sophie gollan

slide2
In this experiment we modelled the structure of DNA and the processes involved in protein synthesis from the information in the DNA
dna structure
DNA structure
  • DNA - a double stranded helix molecule which consists of subunits called nucleotides.
  • Each nucleotide contains a sugar, a phosphate, and a base.
  • There are four bases:
  • adenosine
  • thymine
  • cytosine
  • guanine
  • Alternate sugar and phosphates form the sides, and the bases are connected to the sugars making “rungs” like a ladder.
  • The chemical structure of the bases allow them each to pair up with only one other base, thus they form complementary pairs.
  • The complementary pairs are:
  • Adenosine and thymine
  • Cytosine and guanine
protein synthesis1
Protein synthesis
  • The information about the number, type and sequence of amino acids, needed to make a protein molecule, is found as a code in DNA.
  • The code- a sequence of bases.
  • One gene sequence codes for one polypeptide (a single chain of many amino acids)
  • A set of 3 bases (a codon) codes for one amino acid of a polypeptide.
  • A protein is one or more polypeptides.
equipment
Equipment
  • 42 toothpicks
  • 18 milk bottles cut in half (36 halves) – sugar
  • 18 raspeberry lollies cut in half- phosphate
  • 25 jelly beans cut in half (5 of each 5 colours)- bases:
  • Adenosine- orange
  • Thymine- purple
  • Cytosine- pink
  • Guanine- green
  • Uracil- blue
  • 4 jelly snake, aproxx. 6cm long, different colours
  • A4 white paper representing a cell
  • Colored paper circle, 6cm diameter- a ribosome
  • Clean sharp knife
  • Cutting board
  • Gloves
  • Scissors
  • Marking pen
  • Heinemann Biology textbook
transcription
Transcription
  • A gene length of DNA unwinds in the nucleus. This is the area containing the information about the protein to be made.
slide7
RNA polymerase enzyme moves along the exposed single DNA strand linking complementary RNA nucleotides together to form a mRNA strand.
  • RNA contains the base uracil where thymine is found in DNA. (uracil replaces thymine)
  • The ‘start’ codon and the ‘stop’ codon control the length of the mRNA strand
slide8
The mRNA strand is then modified so that it only consists of the base sequence that will code for the protein. It removes the non-coding regions, introns, while still in the nucleus by splicing the coding regions, exons, together.
  • The modified mRNA then moves from the nucleus into the cytoplasm
slide9
ACTIVATION OF AMINO ACIDS:
  • In the cytoplasm, an enzyme attaches amino acids to tRNA molecules. Each type of amino acid is attached to its specific tRNA.
slide10
mRNA passing out of the nuclear pores into the cytoplasm
  • triplet codons of tRNA with amino acids in the cytoplasm of the cell
translation
TRANSLATION
  • The start codon (AUG) end of the mRNA strand binds onto a ribosome. A tRNA carrying the amino acid methionine at one end and anticodon (UAC) at the other, binds to the mRNA start codon within the ribosome.
slide12
A second tRNA binds to the next codon. Its amino acid links to the polypeptide bond of the first amino acid.
  • The first tRNA is released from the ribosome. The ribosome moves along the mRNA strand one codon at a time. Two tRNAs at a time are temporarily bound within the ribosome and their amino acids linked together

Ribosome

Amino acid forming polypeptide bond (jelly snakes)

mRNA strand

DNA strand

Triplet codon of tRNA

slide13
A polypeptide chain forms (jelly snakes)

Snakes form the polypeptide chain

slide14
When a ‘stop’ codon is reached the polypeptide chain is released into the cytoplasm

Polypeptide chain

slide15
A polypeptide chain is only the primary structure of a protein. Each protein has a particular shape formed by the twisting or folding of its polypeptide chains
  • Proteins are vital components of a cell.
ad