Development of Naval Warfare After March 9,1862. Peter Nguyen Matt Reynolds Maddie Koufogazos Cory Tremblet. The Asian. Brian Smith. B-Smith. Goofy- koos - koos. The Mexican. Dave. Pichette. Phishead. A Change in Naval Warfare.
The era of wooden ships came to an end on March 9, 1862, after the battle between the USS Monitor and the CSS Virginia.
It sparked an naval revolution; no longer were ironclads created just to destroy wooden ships, but to face other ironclads as well.
USS Monitor vs CSS Virginia
1864: The “horological torpedo” was invented, which was, basically, a timed missile that would detonate at a specific time. This was used to defeat other ironclads, penetrating their hull. Because of these torpedoes, ironclads could no longer depend solely upon armor to protect themselves.
1890’s: The term “ironclad” became replaced with “battleships” and “armored cruisers” as ironclads were no longer being used. Ironclads became suicide shells as steel covered battleships entered the arena.
1905: Russia introduced the new technology of fire control, which allowed major caliber rounds to reach distances of five, then ten, and ultimately 15 miles. These rounds made any existing ironclad completely obsolete.
With the realization of the vulnerability of the ironclads came a new era of naval warfare. Battleships were more advanced and heavily equipped to withstand powerful torpedoes as well as bringing heavier weaponry to the lines of battle. They became a potent symbol of naval dominance and might. Regardless of their superiority, however, there were very few decisive clashes between battleship fleets.
1894: The Russo-Japanese War was the introduction of battleship use in naval warfare.
1895: The United States commissioned her first battleship, the USS Texas, which could travel 20.05 knots and had an overall length of 309 feet. It was equipped with two 12-inch guns, six 6-inch guns and four 14-inch torpedo tubes.
1905: Derived from the saying, “fear God and dread nought,” the HMS Dreadnought was unquestionably the most powerful ship afloat. It represented such an advance in naval technology that it became associated with an entire generation of battleships, the “dreadnoughts.” It was the fastest and most powerful battleship in the world at the time.
1907:The USS Texas was replaced when the USS Kansas was commissioned, with twice the tonnage of Texas and being more heavily armed, reaching a length of over 450 ft.
1923-1941: There was a halt in the commissioning of battleships within this timeframe. This came with the end of World War I, as the Washington Disarmament Conference of 1921 agreed to dismantle part of the Navy, and seven of nine battleships under construction were broken up.
1939: With the opening of hostilities in Europe in September, the construction of battleship forces was reborn.
1941: The attack on Pearl Harbor destroyed eight of the Navy’s battleships. Six of these were subsequently repaired and returned to service. Battleship construction continued and advancements in naval technology flourished.
With the rise of battleships came submarines, who fought alongside them. Many world powers used submarines to complement their fleet. Submarines used the advantage of being underwater and safe from detection by opposing forces. Submarines were key to carrying cargo through hostile waters and gathering intelligence. They were also used for inserting and removing covert agents and military forces. Later, their destructive powers made submarines a key element to winning naval battles.
USS Daniel Boone
1776: The first military submarine was created, the “Turtle.” It was unsuccessful in attaching a torpedo to the hull.
1889: Spaniard Isaac Peral’s “Peral” was the first submarine to successfully fire torpedoes. It fired three Whitehead torpedoes while on trials, but internal politics kept the Spanish Navy from pursuing the project.
1900: John P. Holland sold his internal combustion gasoline powered submarine. For only $160,000, it marked the official birth date of the U.S. Navy’s submarine force.
1904: John Arbuthnot Fisher led the British to defeat Portsmouth, saying:
"It is astounding to me, perfectly astounding, how the very best amongst us fail to realize the vast impending revolution in Naval warfare and Naval strategy that the submarine will accomplish!"
1915: With the British blockade on Germany, the Germans mounted a counter-blockade, using submarines. Equipped with deck guns, the submarines sunk the British merchant ships. They could do this because of the “unrestricted submarine warfare.”
1933: The USS Porpoise is the first U.S. submarine to have electric reduction gear and high-speed diesel engines.
1941: The first radar for submarines becomes operational.
1948: The first submarine in the Navy to use guided-missiles was the USS Cusk.
1966: USS Daniel Boone is the first fleet ballistic missile submarine.
Submarines were now nearly undetectable and a deadly opponent to face in any naval battle.
Naval warfare needed the accompaniment of aircrafts, but they had no way of helping out without depending on local bases. The development of aircraft carriers brought the power of aircrafts to help fight against enemy naval forces. These “runways at sea” accompanied the submarines and battleships in the battles for naval superiority. World War II is known to see the first large-scale use of aircraft carriers.
1910: The first pilot to launch from a stationary ship was Eugene Ely.
1914: HMS Ark Royal was the first aircraft carrier, used in the Dardanelles campaign and throughout World War I.
1941: The Japanese attack on pearl Harbor was by carrier-based planes. This demonstrated the great potential of the aircraft carrier. This was the first time Carriers were first used in combat. This started the era of Aircraft Carriers.
1960: The first nuclear-powered carrier was launched by the United States, the Enterprise. They no longer needed fuel bunkers, smokestacks, and duct for the elimination of exhaust gasses that had occupied space in previous carriers.
Despite the fact that ironclads are no longer in use in modern warfare, they had a great impact on the development of naval technology over the next century. Battleships, although not as useful in today’s naval warfare, still patrol the seas, but recent cut backs on Navy shipbuilding programs could stifle the use of these ships. Submarines have been heavily modified with the discovery of atomic power. Atomic submarines can travel underwater at speeds of up to 30 knots and can circumnavigate the globe without surfacing. In particular, aircraft carriers have become a major force in the U.S. Navy. Variations of these include the light carrier, which is equipped with large amounts of electronic gear for the detection of submarines, and the helicopter carrier, which is intended for the conducting amphibious assaults. After the battle between the USS Monitor and CSS Virginia, it became clear that wooden ships would be replaced in favor of battleships, submarines, and aircraft carriers, the new symbol of naval superiority.