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Networking Technologies. Understand Networking Principles – part3 Dr. Husam Osta 2012. Cloud Computing - problem. The use of the internet & computing has generated a huge amount of information on daily basis Managing these huge amount of information

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Networking technologies

Networking Technologies

Understand Networking Principles – part3

Dr. HusamOsta


Cloud computing problem
Cloud Computing - problem

  • The use of the internet & computing has generated a huge amount of information on daily basis

  • Managing these huge amount of information

    • Cloud computing will keep it within the cloud of the internet so that it is available to other users at the same time

  • Cloud computing contains

    • Hardware

    • Software

  • stores information that is available to users at all times and it can be accessed from across the globe.

Cloud computing definition
Cloud Computing - definition

  • What is Cloud Computing ?

  • Is Internet-based computing

    • shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices on demand

  • Cloud computing

    • anything that involves delivering hosted services over the internet and includes any subscription-based or pay-by-use service that, in real time, extends IT’s existing capabilities

Cloud computing
Cloud Computing

  • Traditionally, if you’ve used a computer – you’ve installed software (such as Microsoft Word, Outlook, etc.) on your computer along with the files created, have been stored on your computer.

  • Today, software has migrated to be “installed” and used on the Internet.

  • Using these softwares through a web browser such as Internet Explorer, Chrome, Firefox, or even a smart-phone such as an Android phones & iPhones.

  • Instead of clicking an icon in your START menu to access a program, you can click a “Bookmark” or “Favorite” in your web browser to access it.

Cloud computing example
Cloud computing - example

  • Allows users to share information with other users in a work space

    • by putting it inside the cloud of network.

    • Users can pick files which they need from the cloud.

    • This saves the cost of paper and printer, and it saves time to transfer files to other parts of the work place.

  • Employees in a work place can also share hardware.

    • Users can use single printer or scanner, which will eliminate the need to have multiple printers for each computer.

    • Cloud computing requires a network of computers where employees can share and communicate with each other through their computers.

Cloud computing example1
Cloud computing - example

  • Google Docs ( and Office360 ( are open source online office tools which allow users to perform all major tasks of MS Office.

  • Online storage space such as at Amazon Web Services ( and Rackspace ( However there are cheaper or even free alternatives such as Dropbox ( and Microsoft’s Skydrive (, and they offer good amount of free online storage.

Networking technologies


Internet vs cloud computing
Internet VS Cloud Computing

  • Internet

    • is a global network of billions of interconnected computers around the world.

    • It offers many resources and services such as the World Wide Web and email. This is to access trillions of hyperlinked documents.

  • Cloud Computing

    • The focus has moved towards offering all of the resources over the Internet.

    • Which offers many resources such as software, platforms and infrastructure as services.

Internet vs cloud computing1
Internet VS Cloud Computing

  • Internet is a network of networks, which provides software/hardware infrastructure to establish and maintain connectivity of the computers around the word

  • Cloud computing is a new technology that delivers many types of resources over the Internet.


  • Cloud computing could be identified as a technology that uses the Internet as the communication medium to deliver its services

  • Cloud computing cannot operate globally without the Internet

Networking technologies

  • Cloud computing is broken down into few different categories based on the type of service provided.

    • SaaS (Software as a Service) is the category of cloud computing in which the main resources available as a service are software applications.

    • PaaS (Platform as a Service) is the category/application of cloud computing in which the service providers deliver a computing platform or a solution stack to their subscribers over the Internet.

    • IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service) is the category of cloud computing in which the main resources available as a service are hardware infrastructure.

    • DaaS (Desktop as a Service), which is an emerging –aaS service deals with providing a whole desktop experience over the Internet. This is sometimes referred to as desktop virtualization/virtual desktop or hosted desktop.

Management protocols
Management Protocols based on the type of service provided.

  • Element Management System (EMS)

  • Network Management System (NMS)

Element management system ems
Element Management System (EMS) based on the type of service provided.

  • It consists of systems and applications for managing network elements (NE) 

  • EMS manages one or more of a specific type of telecommunications network element.

  • EMS manages the functions and capabilities within each NE but does not manage the traffic between different NEs in the network. 

Network management system nms
Network Management System (NMS) based on the type of service provided.

  • Is a combination of hardware and software used to monitor and administer a computer network.

  • NMS manages the network devices.

    • faults, configuration, accounting, performance, security (FCAPS) management.

  • Management tasks include

    • discovering network inventory,

    • monitoring device health and status,

    • providing alerts to conditions that impact system performance,

    • identification of problems, their source and possible solutions.

Comparison between network management system nms element management system ems
Comparison between Network Management System (NMS) & Element Management System (EMS)

  • NMS:

    • provides an integrated system for sharing device information across management applications,

    • automation of device management tasks,

    • visibility into the health and capability of the network,

    • identification and localization of network trouble.

  • EMS:

    • is a carrier class management solution

    • It is capable of scaling as the network grows, (number of nods)

    • maintaining high performance levels as the number of network events increase, (number of tasks)

    • providing simplified addition with third-party systems.

Common protocols
Common Protocols Management System (EMS)

  • Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)

  • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)

  • Post Office Protocol (POP) Version 3

  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

  • Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)

Common protocols1
Common Protocols Management System (EMS)

  • Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)

    • HTTP is the foundation of data communication for the World Wide Web.

    • HTTP is an Application Layer protocol designed within the framework of the Internet Protocol Suite.

    • The protocol definitions presume a reliable Transport Layer protocol for host-to-host data transfer.

    • The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is the dominant protocol in use for this purpose.

Common protocols2
Common Protocols Management System (EMS)

  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

    • is a standard network protocol used to transfer files from one host to another host over a TCP-based network, such as the Internet.

    • It is often used to upload web pages and other documents from a private development machine to a public web-hosting server

Common protocols3
Common Protocols Management System (EMS)

  • Post Office Protocol (POP) Version 3

    • Used by local e-mail clients to retrieve e-mail from a remote server over a TCP/IP connection.

    • POP and IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol) are the two most common Internet standard protocols for e-mail retrieval.

      • Virtually all modern e-mail clients and servers support both.

    • IMAP, POP3 is supported by most webmail services such as Hotmail, Gmail and Yahoo! Mail.

Common protocols4
Common Protocols Management System (EMS)

  • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)

    • SMTP is a delivery protocol only.

    • It cannot pull messages from a remote server on demand.

    • Other protocols, such as the Post Office Protocol (POP) and the Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) are specifically designed for retrieving messages and managing mail boxes.

    • SMTP has a feature to initiate mail queue processing on a remote server so that the requesting system may receive any messages destined for.

    • POP and IMAP are preferred protocols when a user's personal computer is only intermittently powered up, or Internet connectivity is only transient and hosts cannot receive message during off-line periods.

Common protocols5
Common Protocols Management System (EMS)

  • Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)

    • Internet-standard protocol for managing devices that support SNMP on IP networks. This include routers, switches, servers, workstations, printers, modem racks, and more.

    • Used in network management systems to monitor network devices for conditions that warrant administrative attention.

    • An SNMP-managed network consists of three key components:

      • Managed device

      • Agent — software which runs on managed devices

      • Network management system (NMS) — software which runs on the manager

Understand networking components
Understand networking components Management System (EMS)

Hardware components
Hardware components Management System (EMS)

  • workstation eg mobile, fixed, handheld, console;

  • servers;

  • switches;

  • routers;

  • cabling;

  • hubs;

  • repeaters;

  • bridges;

  • wireless devices;

  • mobile eg 3G, 4G, GPRS

Network interface cards
Network interface cards Management System (EMS)

  • A network card, network adapter, or NIC (network interface card)

    • is a piece of computer hardware designed to allow computers to physically access a networking medium. It provides a low-level addressing system through the use of MAC addresses.

  • Each Ethernet network interface has a unique MAC address which is usually stored in a small memory device on the card, allowing any device to connect to the network without creating an address conflict.

Repeaters and hubs
Repeaters and hubs Management System (EMS)

  • A repeater is an electronic device

    • receives a signal, cleans it of unnecessary noise, regenerates it, and retransmits it at a higher power level, or to the other side of an obstruction, so that the signal can cover longer distances without degradation.

    • In most twisted pair Ethernet configurations, repeaters are required for cable that runs longer than 100 meters.

    • A repeater with multiple ports is known as a hub.

    • Repeaters work on the Physical Layer of the OSI model.

    • Repeaters require a small amount of time to regenerate the signal.

      • This can cause a propagation delay which can affect network communication when there are several repeaters in a row. Many network architectures limit the number of repeaters that can be used in a row

  • Today, repeaters and hubs have been replaced by switches

Bridges Management System (EMS)

  • A network bridge connects multiple network segments at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model.

  • Bridges broadcast to all ports except the port on which the broadcast was received.

  • Bridges come in three basic types:

    • Local bridges: Directly connect LANs

    • Remote bridges: Can be used to create a wide area network (WAN) link between LANs.

      • Remote bridges, where the connecting link is slower than the end networks, largely have been replaced with routers.

    • Wireless bridges: Can be used to join LANs or connect remote stations to LANs.

switch Management System (EMS)

  • The term switch is used loosely in marketing to encompass devices including routers and bridges, as well as devices that may distribute traffic on load or by application content

  • A network switch is a device that forwards and filters OSI layer 2 datagram's between ports based on the MAC addresses in the packets

    • (chunks of data communication) -> (connected cables)

  • A switch is distinct from a hub in that it only forwards the frames to the ports involved in the communication rather than all ports connected.

  • A switch breaks the collision domain but represents itself as a broadcast domain.

  • Switches make forwarding decisions of frames on the basis of MAC addresses.

  • A switch normally has numerous ports, facilitating a star topology for devices, and cascading additional switches

  • Some switches are capable of routing based on Layer 3 addressing or additional logical levels: multi-layer switches.

Routers Management System (EMS)

  • A router is an internetworking device that forwards packets between networks

    • processing information found in the datagram or packet (IP information from Layer 3 of the OSI Model).

  • Routers use routing tables to determine what interface to forward packets

Switch Management System (EMS)

Growing a network
Growing a network Management System (EMS)

Routers Management System (EMS)

Networking technologies

Routers Management System (EMS)


Software components
Software components Management System (EMS)

  • Software:

    • client software,

      • Software's required by the users in order to do their own tasks

    • server software,

      • Software's required by computer server to be able to run single or verity of services for the users

    • client operating system,

    • server operating system


Server – servers selection - workstations Management System (EMS)


Servers Management System (EMS)

  • Firewall,

  • E-Mail,

  • Web,

  • File,

  • Database,

  • Combination,

  • Virtualization,

  • Terminal services server

Firewalls Management System (EMS)

  • A firewall is an important aspect of a network with respect to security.

  • It typically rejects access requests from unsafe sources while allowing actions from recognized ones.

  • The fundamental role firewalls play in network security grows in parallel with the constant increase in 'cyber' attacks for the purpose of stealing/corrupting data, planting viruses, etc.

Firewall Management System (EMS)

Email server
Email server Management System (EMS)

  • Mail server or e-mail server is a computer in a network that works as your virtual post office.

  • A mail server usually consists of a storage area where e-mails are stored for local users,

  • Database of user accounts that the mail server recognizes and will deal with locally,

  • Communications modules which are the components that actually handle the transfer of messages to and from other mail servers and email clients.

  • The person who is responsible for the maintenance of the e-mail server (editing users, monitoring system activity) are referred to as the postmaster.

Web server
Web server Management System (EMS)

  • Web servers are computers that deliver Web pages.

  • Every Web server has an IP address and possibly a domain name.

    • Example, if you enter the URL a browser, this sends a request to the Web server whose domain name is The server then fetches the page “pageName.html” and sends it to your browser.

  • Any computer can be turned into a Web server by installing server software and connecting the machine to the Internet.

  • There are many Web server software applications, including public domain software from NCSA and Apache, and commercial packages from Microsoft, Netscape and others.

File server
File server Management System (EMS)

  • In the client/server model, a file server is a computer responsible for the central storage and management of data files so that other computers on the same network can access the files.

  • A file server allows users to share information over a network without having to physically transfer files by floppy diskette or some other external storage device.

  • Any computer can be configured to be a host and act as a file server.

    • In its simplest form, a file server may be an ordinary PC that handles requests for files and sends them over the network.

    • In a more sophisticated network, a file server might be a dedicated network-attached storage (NAS) device that also serves as a remote hard disk drive for other computers, allowing anyone on the network to store files on it as if to their own hard drive.

  • A program or mechanism that enables the required processes for file sharing can also be called a file server. On the Internet, such programs often use the File Transfer Protocol (FTP).

Database server 1
Database server -1 Management System (EMS)

  • Database server is the term used to refer to the back-end system of a database application using client/server architecture.

  • The back-end, also called a database server, performs tasks such as

    • data analysis,

    • storage,

    • data manipulation,

    • archiving,

    • and other non-user specific tasks.

Database server 2
Database server -2 Management System (EMS)

  • A database server is a computer program that provides database services to other computer programs or computers.

  • Database management systems (DBMs) frequently provide database server functionality, and some DBMSs (e.g., MySQL) rely exclusively on the client–server model for database access.

Database server
Database server Management System (EMS)

Virtualization Management System (EMS)

  • Virtual server is a highly scalable and highly available server built on a cluster of real servers

  • The architecture of server cluster is fully transparent to end users, and the users interact with the cluster system as if it were only a single high-performance virtual server

Virtualization Management System (EMS)

  • A server, usually a Web server, that shares computer resources with other virtual servers.

  • In this context, the virtual part simply means that it is not a dedicated server-- that is, the entire computer is not dedicated to running the server software.

  • Virtual Web servers are a very popular way of providing low-cost web hosting services.

    • Instead of requiring a separate computer for each server, dozens of virtual servers can co-reside on the same computer.

  • In most cases, performance is not affected and each web site behaves as if it is being served by a dedicated server.

  • However, if too many virtual servers reside on the same computer, or if one virtual server starts hogging resources, Web pages will be delivered more slowly.

Virtualization Management System (EMS)

Server selection
Server selection Management System (EMS)

  • Cost,

  • Purpose,

  • Operating system required

Workstation Management System (EMS)

  • Is any computer connected to a local-area network (LAN).

  • It could be a workstation or a personal computer

  • Most workstations have a mass storage device (disk drive), but a special type of workstation called a diskless workstation that comes without a disk drive.

  • The most common operating systems for workstations are UNIX and Windows NT.

  • Workstation needs:

    • Hardware

    • Permissions / Policies

    • system bus

    • local-system architecture

      • memory,

      • processor,

      • I/O devices

Workstation Management System (EMS)

  • system bus

    • A system bus is a single computer bus that connects the major components of a computer system.

    • The technique was developed to reduce costs and improve modularity.

    • It combines the functions of a data bus to carry information, an address bus to determine where it should be sent, and a control bus to determine its operation.

    • Although popular in the 1970s and 1980s, modern computers use a variety of separate buses adapted to more specific needs.

  • local-system architecture

    • Memory (RAM),

    • Processor ,

    • I/O devices

Workstation system bus
Workstation - system bus Management System (EMS)