What is a research paper? A research paper is a carefully planned essay that shares information or proves a point.
Choosing a topic • Am I truly interested in the subject? • Does it meet the requirements of the assignment? • Do I have access to enough information? • Is the subject limited enough?
Guiding Questions • For this project, you need a focused topic to research. • Forming questions that prompt exploration can guide you. • Any time you find information that answers a question, take notes on it. 1. Jason is researching Anne Frank and is interested in Anne’s religion. He is writing questions to focus his research. Which questions would be relevant for his purpose? (Circle all that apply.) A. How is Judaism different from Christianity? B. What are some of the symbols and signs that are important to the Jewish religion? C. What religion did Adolf Hitler practice? D. What is Hanukkah and how do Jewish people celebrate it? 2. Which topic would be too broad for a research paper? A. Anne Frank B. Anne Frank’s outlook on life C. Anne Frank’s religion D. Anne Frank’s impact on the world
Search Terms • Using a search engine can be very beneficial to you when you are conducting research. • Use your focusing questions to decide what to use as a search term. • This will save you time and you will not have to read through a lot of web sites you will not be able to use.
What is plagiarism? • Plagiarism is the unacknowledged and inappropriate use of the ideas or wording of another writer. It is considered a violation of academic integrity and carries severe punishments. When Do You Cite a Source? • When you use the author’s exact words • When you borrow the author’s ideas
How do you avoid plagiarism? • The best way to avoid plagiarism is to be careful to document your sources, even when you are only making use of data or ideas rather than an actual quotation. • In academic assignments, writing is assumed to be the original words and thoughts of the student unless told otherwise.
Compare the text from the encyclopedia to an excerpt of Cathy’s report. Underline the part(s) of her report that is plagiarized. Encyclopedia text: • A good part of the chronologically-arranged diary entries, all addressed to a Kitty, are concerned with food, its preparation, hygiene, birthday parties and presents, and educating children in such adverse conditions. The cheerfulness of Anne's writing in such dangerous circumstances, as well as her sensitivity and talent to describe difficult circumstances and the tragedy of her short life, made her diary an instant success. The book was translated into over 30 languages, and a pocket book edition in Germany alone sold 900,000 copies, while several million copies of a United States publication of the diary were sold. Cathy’s report: • Anne’s diary is written chronologically and was an instant success because she had a talent to describe harsh circumstances in a cheerful manner. Her book was translated into over 30 languages, and a pocket book edition in Germany sold 900,000 copies. Her book is the second most sold non-fiction book in the world, after the Bible.
Paraphrase When you paraphrase something, you put it into your own words. It can be a similar length to the original. If you are paraphrasing from a source, make sure you cite your source. How to Paraphrase • State the meaning in your own words. • Include all relevant material. • Be accurate. • Sound like yourself. • Cite the original source.
Summarize When you summarize something, you put it into your own words, in a shortened version. If you are summarizing from a source, make sure you cite your source. How to Summarize • Identify author’s name and title of work – in your first sentence. • State the author’s main idea – in your first sentence. • Paraphrase all major points of the work. • Present ideas in the same order as in the original.
How to Quote • Smith writes that “---------” (25). • Smith writes, “------------” (25). • Smith writes about his experiences in the desert: “-------------” (25). Examples of Quoting • Savage writes that “Anne’s diary is considered a masterpiece. . .” (2). • Savage writes, “Anne’s diary is considered a masterpiece. . .” (2). • Savage notes her skill at writing: “Anne’s diary is considered a masterpiece. . .” (2).
Works Cited Page A works cited page is needed when you use sources in your work. For this project, you are required to use and document three sources. Use the document provided on my website or go to http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/ to cite the sources in MLA format.
Basic Guidelines: • Begin your Works Cited page on a separate page at the end of your research paper. • Label the page Works Cited (do not italicize the words Works Cited or put them in quotation marks) and center the words Works Cited at the top of the page. • Double space all citations, but do not skip spaces between entries. • Indent the second and subsequent lines of citations five spaces so that you create a hanging indent.
Basic Guidelines: • Capitalize each word in the titles of articles, books, etc, but do not capitalize articles (the, an), prepositions, or conjunctions unless one is the first word of the title or subtitle: Anne Frank: Diary of a Young Girl • Use italics for titles of larger works (books, magazines) and quotation marks for titles of shorter works (poems, articles) • Entries are listed alphabetically by the author's last name (or, for entire edited collections, editor names). Author names are written last name first. For example: Frank, Anne • MLA does not require the URL in citation, but as I am going to check your sources, the URL should appear in angle brackets after the date of access.
Examples of MLA Citations: • If you reference an entire Web site: • Title of Database. Date of electronic publication or latest update. Name of sponsoring institution or organization. Date the information is retrieved <URL>. • An article from an online journal • Author. "Article Title." Journal Title vol. issue (Year): pages. Date retrieved information <URL>. • An article from an online newspaper • Author. “Article Title.” Newspaper Title Day Month Year, ed.: pages. Vol. Issue (Year): page. Date retrieved information <URL>. • Image, map, audio, video, statistics, timeline • “Title of Item.” Medium. Name of Service. Name and Location of Library. Date of Access <web address of service’s homepage>.