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Human Genetics. Gregor Mendel- father of genetics. Mendel’s Methods. Monohybrid crosses - an experimental cross between individuals that differ by a single trait. First generation (F 1 ). Mendel’s F 1 Observations. One of the traits could be seen in the F 1 generation= Dominant

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Presentation Transcript
mendel s methods
Mendel’s Methods
  • Monohybridcrosses- an experimental cross between individuals that differ by a single trait.
  • First generation (F1).
mendel s f 1 observations
Mendel’s F1 Observations
  • One of the traits could be seen in the F1 generation= Dominant
  • One of the traits was hidden in the F1 generation= Recessive

100% Purple

genetic terminology 1
Genetic Terminology #1
  • Phenotype- an organisms traits.
  • Genotype- an organisms genetic makeup.
  • Homozygous- identical alleles for a gene.
  • Heterozygous- two different alleles for a gene.
genetic terminology 2
Genetic Terminology #2
  • Gene- a sequence of DNA that codes for a protein.
  • Locus- the position on a chromosome occupied by a gene.
  • Allele- one of 2 or more alternative forms of the same gene.

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mendel s f 2 observations
Mendel’s F2Observations
  • Flower color
    • Purple:white

705:224

3:1

mendel s dihybrid cross
Mendel’s Dihybrid Cross
  • 315:108:101:32

= 9:3:3:1

mendel s work yielded these genetic rules
Mendel’s Work Yielded These Genetic Rules
  • Alternative versions of genes (different alleles) account for variations in inherited characters.
  • For each character, an organism inherits two alleles, 1 from the mother and 1 from the father.
  • If two alleles differ, then one, the dominant allele is fully apparent in the organism’s appearance.
  • The two alleles for each trait segregate during gamete production.
  • Alleles of a gene segregate independently of the alleles of other genes.
slide11

THO1

THO1

punnett square
Punnett Square
  • Punnett square- a diagram used to predict the result of a genetic cross.
complete dominance
Complete Dominance
  • The dominant allele produces a functional protein and the protein’s effects are apparent.
  • The recessive allele produces a less functional protein or none at all and the trait is not apparent.
codominance blood types
Codominance- blood types
  • Codominance- the effects of both alleles are apparent.
incomplete dominance20
Incomplete Dominance
  • Incomplete dominance- inheritance in which the F1 is intermediate in phenotype between the parents.
  • Neither allele is dominant.
continuous variation is the result of polygenic inheritance
Continuous Variation is the result of Polygenic Inheritance
  • Continuous variation- a gradation in phenotype; indicates that a trait is controlled by two or more genes.
linkage
Linkage
  • Linkage- the tendency for certain genes to be inherited together because they are in close proximity on the same chromosome.
  • Linked genes- genes that are inherited together.
position of forensic str markers on human chromosomes
Position of Forensic STR Markers on Human Chromosomes

TPOX

D3S1358

TH01

D8S1179

D5S818

VWA

FGA

D7S820

CSF1PO

AMEL

Sex-typing

D13S317

AMEL

D16S539

D18S51

D21S11

13 CODIS Core STR Loci

slide28

AmpFlSTR® Identifiler™

D8S1179

D7S820

D21S11

CSF1PO

TH01

D3S1358

D13S317

D16S539

D2S1338

TPOX

D18S51

D19S433

VWA

AMEL

D5S818

FGA

GS500 LIZ size standard

6FAM (blue)

VIC (green)

NED (yellow)

PET (red)

LIZ (orange)

allelic ladders
Allelic Ladders

D8S1179

D7S820

CSF1PO

D21S11

D2S1338

D3S1358

TH01

D13S317

D16S539

D19S433

VWA

TPOX

D18S51

FGA

AMEL

D5S818