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Strategies to Help Readers: Before, During, and After Reading. Presented by JoDee Dotson & Karin Keith, Literacy Coaches Johnson City Schools dotsonj@jcschools.org keithk@jcschools.org. Students struggle with reading because: they have difficulty decoding the words;

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strategies to help readers before during and after reading

Strategies to Help Readers:Before, During, and After Reading

Presented by

JoDee Dotson & Karin Keith,

Literacy Coaches

Johnson City Schools

dotsonj@jcschools.org

keithk@jcschools.org

slide2

Students struggle with reading because:

  • they have difficulty decoding the words;
  • they have trouble understanding an author’s ideas;
  • they lack the ability to mentally organize ideas as they read;
  • they lack experience with the topic; and
  • they are unsure about how to make connections between what is read and the outside world.
  • they are required to understand specialized vocabulary
  • the readability of the text is higher than the student’s reading ability
slide3

As a result:

  • reading is labeled by students as “too hard” and “boring,”
  • teachers often choose to tell the students what they need to know/read to the class from the textbook/book rather than have the students read, and/or
  • teachers rely solely on other media (i.e. video, audio), instead of print material for struggling readers
  • Thus, students lack the ability to read effectively in our highly literate society.
in this workshop we will address the following questions in relation to reading
In this workshop we will address the following questions in relation to reading:
  • What are some specific skills or knowledge students need in order to read effectively?
  • What strategies might I use with my students to help them become more effective readers and independent learners?
what are some specific skills or knowledge students need in order to read effectively
What are some specific skills or knowledge students need in order to read effectively?
  • Text Features
  • Background knowledge
  • Independent Reading Strategies
  • Independent Comprehension Strategies
text features
Text Features

Print Features

font bullets italics

bold titles labels

colored print captions headings

subheadings

Graphic Aids

diagrams charts sketches

tables graphs overlays

figures timelines maps

cross-sections

text features cont
Text Features (cont.)

Organizational Aids

table of contents index

glossary preface

pronunciation guide appendix

Illustrations

colored photographs colored drawings

acrylic, watercolor, oil paintings black and white photos

black and white drawings labeled drawings

enlarged photographs

slide8
What strategies might I use with my students to help them become more effective readers and independent learners?

Before reading:

  • List-Group-Label -”Post-It” Vocabulary
  • Rivet -Vocabulary Webs
  • Anticipation Guide -Vocabulary Anticipation
  • KWL Charts -Vocabulary Pop-Up
  • SQ3R -Text Walk
  • Word Sorts
list group label
Purpose:

Build background knowledge

Review words, concepts, & ideas

Assessment of prior knowledge

Assessment of misconceptions

Strategy:

Students list all words, phrases, names associated with topic independently

Combine students into groups

Combine individual lists into a group list

Categorize words on group list

Label categories

List-Group-Label
word sorts
Purpose:

Look for categories and relationships between words/concepts in content reading

Explanation of why words go together

Assist students in making connections between their understandings and the text

Assessment of prior knowledge

Make predictions regarding themes

Ask/Answer questions prior to exploring content in depth

Strategy:

Teacher list all words, phrases, names associated with content area text

Combine students into groups

Provide students with a copy of words from text

Students sort words

Students develop relationships between words

Label categories

Groups share relationships and categories with whole group

Students make predictions about the text the words have come from (expository or narrative, content, etc.)

Read selected text

Revisit word sort and make changes accordingly

Add words

Discuss changes

Word Sorts
slide11
During Reading

2/3 Column Notes

Say Something

Fleshing Out a Character

Problem Analysis

Graphic Organizers w/ Signal Words

Post-It Conversations

Summarize and Re-write

Word Mapping/Questioning

Quick Write

Book Mark

Everybody Read To (ERT)

Strategy Cards

“I Wonder…”

What strategies might I use with my students to help them become more effective readers and independent learners?
2 3 column notes
Purpose:

Condense student thinking

Synthesize student thinking

Make connections between reading and world

Mentally organizes thinking

Forces student to read “deeper”

Strategy:

Students divide paper into 2 or 3 sections

Read and complete as directed by teacher

2 column:

Quote In my own words

Main Idea Details

Conclusion Details

Problem Solution

3 column:

Main Idea Details Response

Problem Solution Alternative Solution

Quote Gist Thoughts

2/3 Column Notes
strategy cards
Purpose:

Forces readers to think about the strategies they are actively using during the reading process

Helps student to self-monitor their reading

Fosters talk about reading strategies, resulting in students teaching each other about when and how to read strategically

Encourages readers to discuss the different requirements for reading fiction and non-fiction

Strategy:

Teacher places strategy cards in front of students, reviewing strategies on the cards.

Teacher reads book in shared or guided reading.

During the reading the teacher stops once or twice and asks students to recommend the strategy they would use with an unknown word.

After the reading, go back and review the strategies that were tried, what happened when they were used, and how they can use these independently.

Variation:

Student has own set of strategy cards.

As the student comes to a word he doesn’t know he selects the strategy to be used and moves the card to a designated place.

At the end of reading, the student shares with group what strategy he successfully used.

Strategy Cards
slide14
After reading

4 x 4

Expert Project

Wax Museum

Concept Spinner

ABC Boxes

Sketch to Stretch

Save the Last Word for Me

Exit Slip

Text Reformulation

It Says-I Say-And So

Read, Cover, Remember, Retell

Key Word Strategy

What strategies might I use with my students to help them become more effective readers and independent learners?
text reformulation
Purpose:

To synthesize and mentally organize learning

Forces the student to identify main idea, cause and effect relationships, and themes

Forces the student to sequence, generalize, summarize and make inferences

Stretches critical thinking

Student must analyze and evaluate not only the text but also the writing they are creating about the text

Student makes connections from expository text structures to a more familiar narrative

Strategy:

Introduce students to the types of text they can use as patterns when reformulating a text, such as repetitive book structure, ABC book structure, poem, reader’s theater, or narrative.

Model several types of reformulation for students.

Decide whether the teacher chooses or lets the student(s) choose the type of reformulation.

Students reformulate their expository text into the new text structure

Students share their reformulation with the class.

Text Reformulation
exit slip
Purpose:

Gives feedback about learning

Assesses learning

Review concepts

Synthesizes learning

Reflection on thinking/learning

Guides future learning

Strategy:

Short prompt given to student to focus thinking/writing

Write about something new you learned today.

What made learning easy/hard for you today?

What questions were you left with at the end of class?

How did what we learn today connect to what we did yesterday?

How will you/I know when you have mastered this concept?

What new questions do you have?

What predictions do you have for the reading you will do after this?

List three to five important things to remember about this reading/writing/learning strategy.

Exit Slip