Strategies to Help Readers:Before, During, and After Reading Presented by JoDee Dotson & Karin Keith, Literacy Coaches Johnson City Schools firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com
Students struggle with reading because: • they have difficulty decoding the words; • they have trouble understanding an author’s ideas; • they lack the ability to mentally organize ideas as they read; • they lack experience with the topic; and • they are unsure about how to make connections between what is read and the outside world. • they are required to understand specialized vocabulary • the readability of the text is higher than the student’s reading ability
As a result: • reading is labeled by students as “too hard” and “boring,” • teachers often choose to tell the students what they need to know/read to the class from the textbook/book rather than have the students read, and/or • teachers rely solely on other media (i.e. video, audio), instead of print material for struggling readers • Thus, students lack the ability to read effectively in our highly literate society.
In this workshop we will address the following questions in relation to reading: • What are some specific skills or knowledge students need in order to read effectively? • What strategies might I use with my students to help them become more effective readers and independent learners?
What are some specific skills or knowledge students need in order to read effectively? • Text Features • Background knowledge • Independent Reading Strategies • Independent Comprehension Strategies
Text Features Print Features font bullets italics bold titles labels colored print captions headings subheadings Graphic Aids diagrams charts sketches tables graphs overlays figures timelines maps cross-sections
Text Features (cont.) Organizational Aids table of contents index glossary preface pronunciation guide appendix Illustrations colored photographs colored drawings acrylic, watercolor, oil paintings black and white photos black and white drawings labeled drawings enlarged photographs
What strategies might I use with my students to help them become more effective readers and independent learners? Before reading: • List-Group-Label -”Post-It” Vocabulary • Rivet -Vocabulary Webs • Anticipation Guide -Vocabulary Anticipation • KWL Charts -Vocabulary Pop-Up • SQ3R -Text Walk • Word Sorts
Purpose: Build background knowledge Review words, concepts, & ideas Assessment of prior knowledge Assessment of misconceptions Strategy: Students list all words, phrases, names associated with topic independently Combine students into groups Combine individual lists into a group list Categorize words on group list Label categories List-Group-Label
Purpose: Look for categories and relationships between words/concepts in content reading Explanation of why words go together Assist students in making connections between their understandings and the text Assessment of prior knowledge Make predictions regarding themes Ask/Answer questions prior to exploring content in depth Strategy: Teacher list all words, phrases, names associated with content area text Combine students into groups Provide students with a copy of words from text Students sort words Students develop relationships between words Label categories Groups share relationships and categories with whole group Students make predictions about the text the words have come from (expository or narrative, content, etc.) Read selected text Revisit word sort and make changes accordingly Add words Discuss changes Word Sorts
During Reading 2/3 Column Notes Say Something Fleshing Out a Character Problem Analysis Graphic Organizers w/ Signal Words Post-It Conversations Summarize and Re-write Word Mapping/Questioning Quick Write Book Mark Everybody Read To (ERT) Strategy Cards “I Wonder…” What strategies might I use with my students to help them become more effective readers and independent learners?
Purpose: Condense student thinking Synthesize student thinking Make connections between reading and world Mentally organizes thinking Forces student to read “deeper” Strategy: Students divide paper into 2 or 3 sections Read and complete as directed by teacher 2 column: Quote In my own words Main Idea Details Conclusion Details Problem Solution 3 column: Main Idea Details Response Problem Solution Alternative Solution Quote Gist Thoughts 2/3 Column Notes
Purpose: Forces readers to think about the strategies they are actively using during the reading process Helps student to self-monitor their reading Fosters talk about reading strategies, resulting in students teaching each other about when and how to read strategically Encourages readers to discuss the different requirements for reading fiction and non-fiction Strategy: Teacher places strategy cards in front of students, reviewing strategies on the cards. Teacher reads book in shared or guided reading. During the reading the teacher stops once or twice and asks students to recommend the strategy they would use with an unknown word. After the reading, go back and review the strategies that were tried, what happened when they were used, and how they can use these independently. Variation: Student has own set of strategy cards. As the student comes to a word he doesn’t know he selects the strategy to be used and moves the card to a designated place. At the end of reading, the student shares with group what strategy he successfully used. Strategy Cards
After reading 4 x 4 Expert Project Wax Museum Concept Spinner ABC Boxes Sketch to Stretch Save the Last Word for Me Exit Slip Text Reformulation It Says-I Say-And So Read, Cover, Remember, Retell Key Word Strategy What strategies might I use with my students to help them become more effective readers and independent learners?
Purpose: To synthesize and mentally organize learning Forces the student to identify main idea, cause and effect relationships, and themes Forces the student to sequence, generalize, summarize and make inferences Stretches critical thinking Student must analyze and evaluate not only the text but also the writing they are creating about the text Student makes connections from expository text structures to a more familiar narrative Strategy: Introduce students to the types of text they can use as patterns when reformulating a text, such as repetitive book structure, ABC book structure, poem, reader’s theater, or narrative. Model several types of reformulation for students. Decide whether the teacher chooses or lets the student(s) choose the type of reformulation. Students reformulate their expository text into the new text structure Students share their reformulation with the class. Text Reformulation
Purpose: Gives feedback about learning Assesses learning Review concepts Synthesizes learning Reflection on thinking/learning Guides future learning Strategy: Short prompt given to student to focus thinking/writing Write about something new you learned today. What made learning easy/hard for you today? What questions were you left with at the end of class? How did what we learn today connect to what we did yesterday? How will you/I know when you have mastered this concept? What new questions do you have? What predictions do you have for the reading you will do after this? List three to five important things to remember about this reading/writing/learning strategy. Exit Slip