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Human Resource Management (HRM). Ass . Prof. Dr. Özgür KÖKALAN İstanbul Sabahattin Zaim University. Chapter Objectives. D efine what HRM Classify functions of HRM Define how an employee is selected and trained. Human Resource Management.

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Human Resource Management (HRM)


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    1. Human Resource Management (HRM) Ass. Prof. Dr. Özgür KÖKALAN İstanbul Sabahattin Zaim University

    2. Chapter Objectives • DefinewhatHRM • Classifyfunctions of HRM • Define how an employee is selectedandtrained

    3. Human Resource Management • HRM is defined as thefunction of attracting, developingandmaintainingsufficientnumber of skilledemployeestoperformtheactivitiestoachieveorganizationalgoals. • Human resourceconceptsandtechniquesareimportanttoallmanagers, becausetheyworkwiththepeople.

    4. EnvironmentalInfluences on HRM • Theorganizationalenvironmentalfactorsinfluencingorganizationsandhumanresourcemanagementareclassifiedintotwocategories: • Internalenvironmentalfactors • Externalenvironmentalfactors

    5. InternalEnvironmentalFactorsInfluencing HRM • Internalenvironmentalfactorsaretheissuesthat can be foundwithinorganization’sinternalenvironment. Thesefactorsare; • PersonalFactors: employeeneedsandwants, theirexpectations, commonvalues, employees’ perceptions of theirrolesandmotivationaresomeinternalenvironmentalfactors • JobCharacteristics: differentandvariousjobs in theorganizationhaveinfluenceover HRM.

    6. InterpersonalRelations: leadershipstyles, alongwithformalandinformalgroupsaffecttheinterpersonalrelations in theorganizations. • OrganizationalFactors: top management, the size of organizations, environmentalclimate, andthecharacteristicsand size of theindustryaffect HRM

    7. ExternalEnvironmetalFactors • Someexternalfactorsinfluencing HRM are: • WorkforceDiversity: in demographiccharacteristics of theworkforce in thecommunitysuch as educationlevel, genderdistributionandagegroupsareexamples of workforcediversity. • ExternalSources of Human Resources: thepoolfromwhichtheorganizationrecuitsitsnecessaryqualifiedstafffsuch as vocationalschools, universities, unions, humanresourceagencies. • Competitors: an organization’scompetitorswillhavethedemandforthesimilarqualifiedworkforce. • Regulators: Governmetregulations on laborissueshavegreateffects on HRM

    8. Functions of HRM

    9. HR Planning • HR Planning is thedetermining of therightamount of peoplewiththerightqualifications at theright time andtherightplacetoachievecompaniespre-set goals.

    10. Determiningthe Right Number of People • Whenyoudeterminetherightnumber of employeesfortheorganization, youshouldconsider : • PastExperiences: Effective HR managerswhohaveexperiencesmayforecastpersonnelneeds. Thereareseveralwaystopredictfutureemploymentneedssuch as trend ratioanalysis. • Evaluatingworkloads: everywork has differentworkload. Standardizedworkshavelessworkloadthancomplexandunstructuredworks. • Productiontechnology: company’sproductiontechniquesrequire a differentnumber of employees. • The HR practice of theothercompanies

    11. Determiningthe Right Qualifications of People • Jobanalysis: providesinformationaboutthejobscurrentlyexisting in theworkplaceandtheadequateknowledge, skillsandabilitiesthatemployeesneedtoperformthesejobs. • Job Analysis Methods: toprovideinformationaboutthejobsweneed data. Therearesomewaystocollect data. Theseare: • Interviewmethod: Expertsconductinterviewswithemployees in groupsorindividuallywho do thejobs. • Structuredquestionnairemethod: questionnariesaboutjobcarefullypreparedandconductedtotake data. • Observationmethod: Data aboutthejobsarecollectedbyexpertobserversthroughtheirwatchingtheemployees at work • Diarymethod: dailyentriesaremadebyworkers of everyactivity in whichtheyengage.

    12. JobDescription: is thewrittenstatementthatdescribestheanalyzedjobsbased on a jobanalysisconducted in theworkplace. • JobSpecification: providesthemanagement on theneededqualifications, skillsandtalentsthatemployeesmustownforfullfilingtheirfuctionsproperlyandeffecttively. • Jobevaluation: statestherelativevalue of thejobsexisting in theorganization. It is linkedwithcompensationmanagement.

    13. HR RecruitingandSelection • Recruiting, is defined as thecandidatesearchandfindprocess • Withtherecruitmentprocess, the HRM findsouttheappropriatecandidatesforthevacantjobs in theorganization. • HRM findsthenecessarycandidates in andout of theorganization. • The main purpose of recruitmentprocess is tobuildup a pool in whichtheorganizationselectscandidateswheneverneeded. • Therearetwoimportantemployeesources in recruitmentprocess. Theseare: • Interiorsources • Exteriorsources

    14. InteriorSources • It can be defined as theinternalpool of potentialcandiateswhoarecurrentlyworking in thecompany. HRM findsthepeopleforvacantpositionfromamongtheemployeeswhoarealreadyworking in thecompanythroughtransferingorpromoting. • Advantages of usinginteriorsources: • Increase in loyalty • Employeeknowsorganization • Lessexpensive.

    15. ExteriorSources • It is a pools of potentialemployeesoutside of theorganization. • Sometypicalexternalsources : • Universities (careerdays) • Professional chambers • Headhunter • Newspaperor Internet • HRM agencies ( Yenibiriş, Adecco) • Transfers Advantages of ExteriorSources • New methods, procedures, andtechniquesmay be transferredintothecompany. • New managementapproaches can be injected.

    16. SelectionProcess of EmployessfromInteriorSources • Career Planning; is defined as theprocessbywhichoneselectscareergoalsandthepathtothesegoals. • Careercan be explained as alljobsthatexist in one’swholeworking life. • Careerpathis thesequentialpattern of tasksandjobsthat form one’scareer.

    17. SelectionProcess of EmployeesfromExteriorSources • Theimportantsteps in selectingcandidatesfromexteriorsourcesare as follows: • Application Form: it providesbasicinformationaboutcandidatesuch as name, maritalstatus, experiences… • Test: theobjective of tests is tofindoutthetalents, knowledge, skillsandqualification of theapplicant. Therearemanydifferentkinds of test appliedbyorganization. But alltests can be gatheredinto 4 groups: • CognitiveAbility Test / Intelligence Test • Test forPhysicalAbilities • Test forMeasuringPersonalityandInterests • Achivement Test

    18. Interviews: an interview is defined as a conservationwith a purposetogettoknoweachother. • Interviewmay be classifiedunderthreecategories: • Structured / UnstructuredInterview • Interviewsaccordingtotheirpurpose • Interviewsaccordingtotheircontent. • Medical / PhysicalExamination: somejobsrequirecertainphysicalabilitiesfromtheemployees. Especiallyforthe top keyposition it is importantfortheorganizationstoemployhealthypeople. • Reference Checksand Background Investigations: theyaremadetoverifytheinformationstated in theapplication form and/orcollectedduringinterviews. • Employmentdecision: thelaststage of theselectionprocess is employmentdecisionbybothsides. Itshould be madebythedepartmenthead.

    19. HR Orientationand Training • Orientation is defined as a procedureforprovidingnewemployeeswithbasic background informationaboutthefirm. • It is generallymadejointlyby HRM anddepartment in whichtheemployeewillwork • Itmay be 2-3 hoursor 2-3 days

    20. Althoughtheyhavesimilarmeaning in publiceye, educationandtrainingcarriessomedistictions in meaning • Educationis toprovide general knowledgetopeopleforseveraltaskundertakingsthattheymayperform in thefuture. • Training is defined as providingspesificknowledge, skillstothepeoplethatarenecessarytoperformthespesificjobsandtasks. • The main purpose of HR training is toprovidenecessaryskillsandknowledgetoemployeestoimprovetheirqualifications.

    21. Type of Training Program • Theyaremainlytwogroups of employees. • Managers (top, middle, lowerlevelmanagers) • White- bluecolorstaff. It is alsocalledthenon- managerialstaff.

    22. Non –Managerial Level Training Programs • Therearetwo main types of non- managerialleveltraining • On- the - jobtrainingmethods: theyrelatetotheindividual’slearning his taskswhile he actuallyperforms. • Apprenticeshiptraining • Jobinstructiontraining • Off- the – jobtrainingmethods: Theyarethetechniquesthatenabletheemployeesto be trainedout of theusual workshop andofficies • Conferences, • Classroomgroups • Audiovisualtechniques • Simulationmethods • Internet- basedtraining

    23. Managerial Level Training Program • Therearetwo main types of managerialleveltraining • On- the - jobtrainingmethods: theyrelatetotheindividual’slearning his taskswhile he actuallyperforms. • Coachingmethod • Understudyassigmentmethod • Jobrotation • Off- the – jobtrainingmethods: Theyarethetechniquesthatenabletheemployeesto be trainedout of theusual workshop andofficies • Case studymethod • Management gamemethod • Role playingmethod