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Inside the Restless Earth. Ch. 1 Minerals of the Earth’s Crust. Section 1: What Is a Mineral?. Section 1: What is a Mineral?. Mineral: Naturally formed Inorganic Solid Crystalline structure. Mineral Structure.

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inside the restless earth

Inside the Restless Earth

Ch. 1

Minerals of

the Earth’s Crust

section 1 what is a mineral1
Section 1: What is a Mineral?

Mineral:

  • Naturally formed
  • Inorganic
  • Solid
  • Crystalline structure
mineral structure
Mineral Structure
  • element - a substance that cannot be separated or broken down into simpler substances by chemical means.
  • Each element is made of only one kind of atom.

The element sodium.

mineral structure1
Mineral Structure
  • compound - a substance made of two or more elements that have been chemically combined.
  • Na + Cl = NaCl

The compound halite.

mineral structure2
Mineral Structure
  • crystal - a solid whose atoms, ions, or molecules are arranged in a definite repeating pattern.
  • The arrangement of atoms

is determined by the kinds

of atoms.

Amethyst.

two groups of minerals
Two Groups of Minerals

Minerals are divided into two groups based on their chemical composition.

two groups of minerals1
Two Groups of Minerals

1. Silicate minerals - minerals that contain a combination of silicon, oxygen, and often one or more metals.

- Make up > 90% of Earth’s crust

common silicate minerals
Common Silicate Minerals

Feldspar

KAlSi3O8

Quartz

Silicon Dioxide

SiO2

Mica

Biotite

K(Mg, Fe)3AlSi3O10(F, OH)2

two groups of minerals2
Two Groups of Minerals

2. Nonsilicate minerals - minerals that do not contain compounds of silicon and oxygen.

Gypsum

classes of nonsilicate minerals
Classes of Nonsilicate Minerals

Native Elements - composed of only one element.

Gold

Copper

classes of nonsilicate minerals1
Classes of Nonsilicate Minerals

Oxides - form when an element (such as aluminum or iron) combines chemically w/ oxygen.

Corundum

Al2O3

Aluminum oxide

classes of nonsilicate minerals2
Classes of Nonsilicate Minerals

Carbonates - contain combinations of carbon and oxygen in their chemical structure.

Calcite

CaCO3

classes of nonsilicate minerals3
Classes of Nonsilicate Minerals

Sulfates - contain sulfur and oxygen, SO4.

Gypsum

Calcium Sulfate Dihydrate

CaSO4·2H2O

classes of nonsilicate minerals4
Classes of Nonsilicate Minerals

Halides - form when:

flourine, chlorine, iodine, or bromine

combine with

sodium, potassium, or calcium

Flourite

Calcium Fluoride

CaF2

classes of nonsilicate minerals5
Classes of Nonsilicate Minerals

Sulfides - contain one or more elements (such as lead, iron, or nickel) combined with sulfur.

Galena

Lead Sulfide

PbS

section 2 identifying minerals1
Section 2: Identifying Minerals

Color

- the same mineral can come in a variety of colors

- usually not the best way to identify a mineral

section 2 identifying minerals2
Section 2: Identifying Minerals

Luster - the way a surface reflects light.

section 2 identifying minerals3
Section 2: Identifying Minerals

Luster - the way a surface reflects light.

1. Metallic - bright, reflective

Gold

section 2 identifying minerals4
Section 2: Identifying Minerals

2. Submetallic - dull, reflective

Euxenite

section 2 identifying minerals5
Section 2: Identifying Minerals

3. Nonmetallic

Vitreous

glassy, brilliant

Pollucite

section 2 identifying minerals6
Section 2: Identifying Minerals

3. Nonmetallic

Silky

fibrous

Gypsum

section 2 identifying minerals7
Section 2: Identifying Minerals

3. Nonmetallic

Resinous

plastic

Sphalerite

section 2 identifying minerals8
Section 2: Identifying Minerals

3. Nonmetallic

Waxy

greasy, oily

Cancrinite

section 2 identifying minerals9
Section 2: Identifying Minerals

3. Nonmetallic

Pearly

creamy

Stellerite

section 2 identifying minerals10
Section 2: Identifying Minerals

3. Nonmetallic

Earthy

rough, dull

Kaolinite

section 2 identifying minerals11
Section 2: Identifying Minerals

Streak - the color of a mineral in powdered form.

- the mineral is rubbed

against a streak plate

- streak is not affected

by air or water

- more reliable than

mineral color

cleavage and fracture
Cleavage and Fracture

Cleavage - the tendency of some minerals to break along smooth, flat surfaces.

cleavage and fracture1
Cleavage and Fracture

Fracture - the tendency of some minerals to break unevenly along curved or irregular surfaces.

Conchoidal fracture

hardness
Hardness

Hardness - a mineral’s

resistance to being

scratched.

density
Density

Density - measure of how much matter is in a given amount of space. d = m / v

gold = 19 g/cm3

Specific gravity - the ratio of an object’s density to the density of water.

gold = 19

special properties
Special Properties

Fluorescence - glow under ultraviolet light.

Calcite (red) and willemite (green)

special properties1
Special Properties

Chemical reaction - look for bubbling when combined with an acid.

CaCO3 + 2HCl = CO2 + H2O + CaCl2

calcite

hydrochloric acid

special properties2
Special Properties

Optical properties - such as double refraction.

Same sample of calcite, but it’s rotated.

special properties3
Special Properties

Magnetism - attracts iron.

Magnetite

special properties4
Special Properties

Taste

Never taste a mineral without the

teacher’s permission.

Halite tastes salty.

Borax tastes sweet.

special properties5
Special Properties

Radioactivity

Autunite contains uranium.

how do minerals form
How Do Minerals Form?

Limestones

As water runs along the surface of the Earth and

seeps through the ground, it dissolves minerals and

carries them to large

bodies of water, where

they crystallize on the

bottom.

how do minerals form1
How Do Minerals Form?

Evaporating Salt Water

Minerals such as halite crystallize when salt water

evaporates.

how do minerals form2
How Do Minerals Form?

Metamorphic Rocks

Changes in pressure, temperature, or chemical

makeup can form new minerals such as garnet.

how do minerals form3
How Do Minerals Form?

Hot-Water Solutions

Magma heats groundwater, which now more easily

reacts with and dissolves minerals. The minerals

then crystallize out of

the solution. This

vein of gold was

formed this way.

how do minerals form4
How Do Minerals Form?

Pegmatites

Magma can move upward into these teardrop-shaped

bodies. Pictured here is a sample of tourmaline from

a pegmatite.

how do minerals form5
How Do Minerals Form?

Plutons

As magma moves

up it may cool and

solidify forming a

pluton.

mining
Mining

Ore:

A mineral deposit large enough and pure enough to

be mined for profit.

mining1
Mining

Surface Mining

Used to remove minerals located at or near the

surface of the Earth.

mining2
Mining

Subsurface Mining

Used to remove minerals

located too deep within the

Earth to be surface mined.

responsible mining
Responsible Mining

Potential mining problems:

- Can disturb or destroy habitats

- Waste products may pollute surface water and

groundwater

responsible mining1
Responsible Mining

Potential mining problems:

- Can disturb or destroy habitats

- Waste products may pollute surface water and

groundwater

Solutions:

- Reclamation: return mined land to its original state

- Reduce need for minerals by recycling

the use of minerals
The Use of Minerals

Metallic Minerals

- Have shiny surfaces

- Do not let light pass

through them

- Good conductors of heat

and electricity

the use of minerals1
The Use of Minerals

Nonmetallic Minerals

- Have shiny or

dull surfaces

- May let light

pass through

them

- Good insulators

of electricity

the use of minerals2
The Use of Minerals

Gemstones

- Highly valued for beauty and rarity