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???. What causes a black eye? Blood vessels burst causing blood to pool in that area. How many bones are in the human body? 206 What is the human body ’ s largest organ? Skin. Chapter 37. Introduction to Body Structure. Section 37.1. Body Organization. Organ Systems Organs

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  • What causes a black eye?
    • Blood vessels burst causing blood to pool in that area.
  • How many bones are in the human body?
    • 206
  • What is the human body’s largest organ?
    • Skin
chapter 37

Chapter 37

Introduction to Body Structure

section 37 1

Section 37.1

Body Organization

4 levels of structural organization
Organ Systems





Group of similar cells that perform a common function

Building blocks of the human body

4 Levels of Structural Organization
4 kinds of tissues
4 Kinds of Tissues
  • 1. Epithelial
    • Lines most body surfaces
    • Protects other tissues from dehydration and physical damage
  • 2. Nervous
    • Consists of nerve cells and supporting cells
    • Carries info. throughout the body
  • 3. Connective
    • Supports, protects and insulates
    • Includes fat, cartilage, bone, tendons and blood
  • 4. Muscle
    • Enables movement of body structures
3 types of muscle tissue
3 Types of Muscle Tissue
  • 1. Skeletal
    • Voluntary
    • Moves bones in the trunk and limbs
  • 2. Smooth
    • Involuntary
    • Line the walls of blood vessels and some organs
  • 3. Cardiac
    • Involuntary
    • Found in the heart
    • Pump blood throughout the body
stem cells
Stem Cells
  • Give rise to all types of cells
  • Can form any type of body tissue
  • Can divide indefinitely in embryos
  • Can possibly repair damaged tissues
  • Produce blood cells in bone marrow
  • Adult stem cells only divide ~100 times
organ systems
A group of organs that work together to carry out a major activities or processes

Table 1 p. 848












Organ Systems
body cavities
Body Cavities
  • Fluid-filled spaces that house and protect major internal organs
  • 5 Types
    • 1. Cranial
      • Brain
    • 2. Spinal
      • Spinal cord
    • 3. Thoracic
      • Heart and lungs
    • 4. Abdominal
      • Digestive organs
    • 5. Pelvic
      • Reproductive organs
  • Organisms that maintain a constant internal temperature
  • Critical to homeostasis
  • Negative feedback system
    • Output of a system acts to oppose changes to the input of a system
answer the following s
Answer the Following ?’s
  • List the 4 levels of structural organization within the body.
  • Describe the 4 types of body tissues.
  • List the body’s major organ systems and describe their function.
  • Describe how endothermy helps maintain homeostasis.
  • What part of your skeletal system do you think is the most important? Why?
section 37 2

Section 37.2

Skeletal System

the skeleton
The Skeleton
  • Allows us to stand and perform everyday activities (along with our muscles)
  • Axial Skeleton
    • Bones of the skull, spine, ribs

and sternum

    • 80
  • Appendicular Skeleton
    • Bones of the arms, legs, pelvis

and shoulder

    • 126
axial skeleton
Axial Skeleton
  • 29 bones in the skull
    • 8 form the cranium
    • 14 are facial bones
    • 6 middle ear bones
    • 1 supports your tongue
  • 26 vertebrae
  • 12 pairs of ribs
  • 1 sternum
appendicular skeleton
Appendicular Skeleton
  • Forms limbs (arms & legs)
    • Shoulders
    • Arms
    • Hips
    • Legs
  • Shoulder blades
  • Collar bones
  • Pelvic bones
structure of bone
Structure of Bone
  • Compact bone
    • Dense tissue, provides support
  • Spongy bone
    • Loose structure of connective tissue
  • Bone Marrow
    • Soft tissue inside the bone
    • Red
      • Production of blood cells
    • Yellow
      • Consists of fat
  • Periosteum
    • Hard, outer layer
growth of bones
Growth of Bones
  • Haversian Canals
    • Hallow channels in compact

bone where new bone cells

are added in layers

  • Osteocytes
    • Maintain the mineral

content of bone

    • Blood vessels that run

through haversian canals

provide nutrients to


  • Occurs when bone

tissue is lost, and

becomes less dense

  • Porous bone
  • Where 2 bones meet
  • Cartilage cushions joints
  • Held together by ligaments
    • Prevent bones from moving too far in one direction
3 main types of joints
3 Main Types of Joints
  • Immovable
    • Little or no movement
      • Cranial bones
  • Slightly Movable
    • Limited movement
      • Vertebrae
  • Freely Movable
    • Movement allowed
      • Knee
movable joints
Movable Joints
  • Ball-and-socket
    • Shoulders and hips
  • Pivot
    • Rotation
    • Turning of head
  • Hinge
    • Bending and straightening
    • Elbows, knuckles, knees
  • Gliding
    • Sliding
    • Wrists and ankles
  • Saddle
    • Rotation, bending and straightening
    • Base of thumbs
disorders of joints
Disorders of Joints
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
    • Inflammation of freely movable joints
    • Cells of immune system attack tissues around joints
  • Osteoarthritis
    • Degeneration of cartilage
    • Bones rub together
section 37 3

Section 37.3

Muscular System

muscles and movement
Muscles and Movement
  • Everyday activities require muscles.
    • Walking
    • Running
    • Brushing your teeth
    • Eating
    • Writing notes
movement of the skeleton
Movement of the Skeleton
  • Tendons
    • Connect muscles to bones
  • Origin
    • Bone that stays stationary during muscle contraction
  • Insertion
    • Bone that moves when muscle contracts
movement of the skeleton1
Movement of the Skeleton
  • Flexor
    • Muscle that causes a joint to bend
  • Extensor
    • Muscle that causes a joint to straighten
muscle structure
Muscle Structure
  • Actin and Myosin
    • Protein filaments of connective tissue that holds muscle cells together and provide elasticity.
  • Myofibrils
    • Muscle fibers that have a cylindrical structure
  • Sarcomere
    • Area between the Z lines of myofibrils
  • Myofibrils and sacromeres are made up of actin and myosin
muscle contraction
Muscle Contraction
  • Step 1
    • Sarcomere is relaxed, myosin and actin partially overlap each other
  • Step 2
    • Nerve cells povide signal
    • Actin and myosin overlap more
    • Sarcomere becomes shorter
  • Step 3
    • Sarcomere is fully contracted
    • Actin and myosin fully overlap each other
aerobic and anaerobic energy pathways
Aerobic and Anaerobic Energy Pathways
  • Aerobic respiration requires ATP to power muscle contractions
  • Glycolysis (an anaerobic process) supplies ATP during intense activity
  • When aerobic and anaerobic pathways cant keep up we use glycogen and fat as energy sources
exercise and fitness
Exercise and Fitness
  • Why does exercise become easier after prolonged training?
    • More oxygen supplied to muscles
    • More ATP available for contractions
    • Reduces muscle fatigue
  • Why is stretching necessary?
    • Over-stretched muscles can tear
  • How do muscles increase in size?
    • Muscle break apart and repairing makes them bigger
section 37 3 questions
Section 37.3 Questions
  • Describe the action of muscles moving in pairs in the body.
  • Describe the different parts of the muscle and how they play a role in muscle contraction.
  • How is energy supplied to the muscles for contraction?
muscle and bone research part ii
Muscle and Bone Research Part II
  • Use the supplies on the side counter to complete a detailed drawing of your muscle and your bone.
    • Try to be as detailed as you can.
      • Muscle fibers
      • Structure of bones
  • Once your drawings are complete attach them to the right side of the cardboard cutout or the piece of butcher paper that represents the back of the skeleton.
  • List 5 things you did so far today that required the use of your muscular system.
  • List any other organ system on p. 848 that your body has used, and the activity that required that system to function.
  • Your skin has many functions. How is it helped/protected you today? List as many as you can.
section 37 4

Section 37.4

Skin, Hair, and Nails

  • 15% of total body weight
  • Largest organ of your body
  • Hair and nails form here
  • Protection from


  • 2 main layers:
    • Epidermis
    • Dermis
  • Epidermis
    • Outermost layer of the skin
  • Keratin
    • A protein that makes skin tough and waterproof
  • Melanin
    • Cells that give skin its color
  • Skin cells aren’t repaired, they are replaced
  • Dermis
    • Functional layer of skin that is beneath the epidermis
    • Contains hair follicles, nerve cells, blood vessels, other skin cells
    • Nerve cells in dermis give us the sense of touch
  • Temperature Regulation
    • Blood vessels flowing near the surface release heat from the body
    • Sweat glands also releases heat
  • Subcutaneous tissue
    • Layer of connective tissue, mostly fat, found underneath the dermis
    • Provides insulation and stores energy
hair and nails
Hair and Nails
  • Protrude from the epidermis
  • Hair sheds because it is no longer growing
  • The white area near the base of your nail is where new nail cells are made
  • Nails grow throughout your entire life
skin disorders
Skin Disorders
  • Acne
    • Oil glands in the dermis secrete sebum
    • Sebum clogs pores causing the oil to build up
  • Skin Cancer
    • Can be caused by over-exposure to UV rays
    • Carcinomas
      • More treatable
    • Melanomas
      • Grow quickly less treatable
chapter 37 wrap up
Chapter 37 Wrap-Up ?
  • Describe how the organization of the different structures in your body allow you to complete the everyday activities you enjoy, and how they help you function in a stable manner.
    • Organ systems, Organs, Tissue, Cells
    • Bones, Muscle, Skin
  • Answer this question on a piece of notebook paper in no less than 5 sentences.