Introduction to Cognitive Psychology. What is Cognitive Psychology?. Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes. What is Cognitive Psychology?. Cognitive Psychology versus Behaviorism Behavioral Psych: how S maps onto R Cognitive Psych: what happens in the mind
Figure 1.1 (p. 3) - Complexity of CognitionSarah is walking toward her friend, who is waving in the distance. She is aware of her friend, but has little awareness of the stranger who is passing on her right, even though he is much closer.
The complexities of cognition are usually hidden from our consciousness.
Figure 1.5 (p 8) - Hemholtz’s unconcious inferenceThe display in (a) looks like (b) a gray rectangle in front of a light triangle; but it could be (c) a gray rectangle and a six-sided figure that are lined up appropriately.
The Herring illusionThe diagonal lines give the impression of moving forward- the lines look like optic streaks (streaks of neural activation in the retina)When moving forward, straight lines (like doorways) start looking like curves on the retina.
The “understand-the-brain” jigsaw puzzle is particularly daunting… To get a sense of the difficulty, imagine a jigsaw puzzle with several thousand pieces. Many of the pieces can be interpreted multiple ways, as if each had an image on both sides but only one of them is the right one. All the pieces are poorly shaped so you can’t be certain if two pieces fit together or not. Many of them will not be used in the ultimate solution, but you don’t know which ones or how many. Every month new pieces arrive in the mail. Some of these new pieces replace older ones, as if the puzzlemaker was saying, “I know you’ve been working with these old puzzle pieces for a few years, but they turned out to be wrong. Sorry. Use these new ones instead until future notice.” Unfortunately, you have no idea what the end result will look like; worse, you may have some ideas, but they are wrong.
- Jeff Hawkins, On Intelligence
Figure 1.3 (p. 6)A modern version of Donders’ (1868) reaction time experiment. (a) the simple reaction-time task; and (b) the choice reaction-time task. For the simple time reaction text, the participant pushes the J key when the light goes on. For the choice reaction time test the participant pushes the J key if the left light goes on, and the K key if the right light goes on. The purpose of the Donders experiment was to determine the time it took to decide which key to press for the choice reaction time test.
Figure 1.4 (p. 7)Sequence of events between presentation of the stimulus and the behavioral response, in Donders’ experiment. The dashed line indicates that Donders measured reaction time, the time between presentation of the light and the participant’s response. (a) simple reaction-time task; (b) choice reaction-time task.
Figure 1.9 (p. 15)Updated sequence of events between stimulus and response, taking into account the physio-logical response. A, B, & C show relationships that can be measured. The mental response must be inferred from these relationships.
E.g. Think back to the “mind=Windows” metaphor.
Figure 1.10 (p. 16)Design of Davachi et al. (2003) experiment. There were two parts to this experiment. The first part, learning, was followed one day later by a memory experiment. Note that the participants’ brain activity was measured during the learning task using a technique called functional magnetic resonance imaging.
Figure 1.11 (p. 17)Results for the behavioral part of the Davachi et al. (2003) experiment. This graph indicates the relationship between how the participants related to the stimulus (place or read) during learning and their performance in the memory test. This corresponds to Relationship A in Figure 1.9.
Figure 1.12 (p. 18)The results of the physiological part of the Davachi et al. experiment. Left: The relationship between how the participants reacted to the stimulus during learning (place or read) and the physiological response (Relationship B). Right: The relationship between the physiological response and the behavioral response (whether the person recognized or forgot the word) (Relationship C).