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Revolution Action And Partition. India’s Quest for Home Rule. Indian National Congress founded 1885, to promote self-rule Initial support from both Hindus and Muslims Original position in favor or collaboration with British, after World War I moved to opposition

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India s quest for home rule
India’s Quest for Home Rule

  • Indian National Congress founded 1885, to promote self-rule

  • Initial support from both Hindus and Muslims

  • Original position in favor or collaboration with British, after World War I moved to opposition

  • British encouraged development of Muslim League (1906) to blunt Congress

  • Woodrow Wilson, Lenin inspirations to movement

Mohandas k gandhi 1869 1948
Mohandas K. Gandhi (1869-1948)

  • Hindu, studied law in London, practiced in South Africa

    • Opposed apartheid

  • Returned to India 1915, made Indian National Congress into a mass movement

  • Titled Mahatma: “great soul”

  • Opposed caste system

Gandhi s passive resistance
Gandhi’s Passive Resistance

  • Ahimsa: non-violence

  • Satyagraha: passive resistance (“truth and firmness”)

  • Non-cooperation Movement (1920-1922)

  • Civil Disobedience Movement (1930)

  • Boycott of British Institutions

  • Armritsar Massacre (1919)

The government of india act 1937
The Government of India Act (1937)

  • Creation of autonomous legislature

    • 600 nominally sovereign princes refuse to cooperate

  • Muslim fears of Hindu dominance

    • Traditional economic divide

    • Especially severe with Great Depression

  • Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948) proposes partition, creation of the State of Pakistan


  • The Jewel of the Crown

    • Legacy of British colonialism

  • Deep division between Hindus, Muslims

  • Role of Mohandas Gandhi

Vivisection of india gandhi
“Vivisection” of India (Gandhi)

  • Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Muslim League

  • Jawaharlal Nehru, Congress Party

  • 1947 partition

    • 500,000 killed

    • 10 million refugees

  • India moves toward nonalignment position

    • The “third path”

Indian democracy
Indian Democracy

  • Indian democracy flourishes under Indira Ghandi (1917-1984)

    • Daughter of Nehru, no relationship to Mohandas

    • “Green Revolution” increases agricultural yields

    • Repressive policies to slow population growth, including forced sterilization

  • Assassinated by Sikh bodyguards after attack on Sikh extremists in Amritsar, 1984

The issue of palestine
The Issue of Palestine

  • After World War II, Arab states increasingly gain independence

  • Palestine ruled by Great Britain between the wars

  • Proclaims support for Jewish “homeland” in Palestine (Balfour Declaration, 1917)

  • Growing Jewish immigration from Europe from 1880s --connected to what Ism??

  • Arab protests in 1920s and 1930s

Creation of the state of israel
Creation of the State of Israel

  • Jewish, Arab pressure drives British to hand Palestine over to United Nations for a resolution

  • Partition Plan of 1947 divides Palestine into seven regions: 3 Jewish, 3 Arab, Jerusalem internationalized

  • May 1948 Jews declare independence of State of Israel

  • Arab states (Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon and Iraq) invade, Israel successfully defends itself

The six day war june 1967
The Six-Day War (June 1967)

  • Gamal Abdel Nasser (Egypt, 1918-1970) takes leadership position in Arab world

  • Attempts to block Suez traffic, conflict with Israel

  • Threatens invasion of Israel in 1967, Israel launches hugely successful pre-emptive strike

    • Conquers and annexes East Jerusalem, Golan Heights

    • Conquers Sinai Desert, returned to Egypt after peace treaty signed

    • Conquers Gaza Strip and West Bank, status unresolved

Muslim revival and arab disunity
Muslim Revival and Arab Disunity

  • Cold war splits Arab-Muslim world

  • Israel defeats Egypt and Syria in 1973 Yom Kippur war

    • Attacked on Jewish holy day

  • Anwar Sadat (Egypt, 1918-1981) negotiates peace treaty with Israel

    • Assassinated 1981 by Muslim extremists (Similar to what other compromising leader?)