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Operational Level Lesson 1 Presentation. Hazardous Materials for First Responders, 3 rd Ed. Operational-Level Training Requirements. Awareness-Level competencies of NFPA 472 Operational-Level competencies of NFPA 472 Additional training as required by DOT, EPA, and OSHA requirements

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Operational Level Lesson 1 Presentation


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operational level lesson 1 presentation

Operational Level Lesson 1 Presentation

Hazardous Materials for First Responders, 3rd Ed.

operational level training requirements
Operational-Level Training Requirements
  • Awareness-Level competencies of NFPA 472
  • Operational-Level competencies of NFPA 472
  • Additional training as required by DOT, EPA, and OSHA requirements
  • Local and state/provincial occupational health and safety requirements

Operational Level

primary responsibilities
Primary Responsibilities
  • Identifying the hazardous material(s) involved in an incident if possible
  • Analyzing an incident to determine the nature and extent of the problem
  • Protecting first responders, nearby persons, the environment, and property from the effects of a release

(1 of 2)

Operational Level

primary responsibilities4
Primary Responsibilities
  • Developing a defensive plan of action to address the problems presented by the incident
  • Implementing the planned response to control a release from a safe distance and keep it from spreading
  • Evaluating the progress of the actions taken to ensure that response objectives are safely met

(2 of 2)

Operational Level

emergency response centers
Emergency ResponseCenters
  • Look in the current Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG) to find phone numbers

Operational Level

information to be furnished to an emergency response center
Information to be Furnished to an Emergency Response Center
  • Your name, callback phone number, and FAX number
  • Location and nature of problem (spill, fire, etc.)
  • Name and identification number of material(s) involved
  • Shipper/consignee/point of origin
  • Carrier name, railcar, or truck number

(1 of 2)

Operational Level

information to be furnished to an emergency response center7
Information to be Furnishedto an Emergency Response Center
  • Container type and size
  • Quantity of material transported/released
  • Local conditions (weather, terrain, proximity to schools, hospitals, waterways, etc.)
  • Injuries and exposures
  • Local emergency services that have been notified

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Operational Level

assistance provided by emergency response centers
Assistance Provided by Emergency Response Centers
  • Confirming that a chemical emergency exists
  • Recording details in writing and on tape
  • Providing immediate technical assistance to the caller
  • Contacting the shipper of the material or other experts
  • Providing the shipper/manufacturer with the caller’s name and callback number so that the shipper/manufacturer can deal directly with the party involved

Operational Level

properties of hazardous materials
Properties ofHazardous Materials
  • Solid — Substance that has both a specific shape (without a container) and volume
  • Liquid — Fluid that has no independent shape but has a specific volume; flows according to laws of gravity
  • Gas — Fluid that has neither independent shape nor volume and tends to expand indefinitely

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Operational Level

properties of hazardous materials11
Properties ofHazardous Materials
  • Flash point — Minimum temperature at which a liquid or volatile solid gives off sufficient vapors to form an ignitable mixture with air near its surface
  • Fire point — Temperature at which enough vapors are given off to support continuous burning

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Operational Level

properties of hazardous materials12
Properties ofHazardous Materials
  • Autoignition temperature/point — Minimum temperature at which the fuel in air must be heated to initiate self-sustained combustion without initiation from an independent ignition source
  • Flammable, explosive, or combustible range — The percentage of the gas or vapor concentration in air that will burn or explode if ignited

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Operational Level

properties of hazardous materials13
Properties ofHazardous Materials
  • LEL/LFL (Lower explosive limit/Lower flammable limit) — The lowest concentration that will produce a flash of fire when an ignition source is present
  • UEL/UFL (Upper explosive limit/Upper flammable limit) — The highest concentration that will produce a flash of fire when an ignition source is present

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Operational Level

properties of hazardous materials14
Properties ofHazardous Materials
  • Vapor pressure — Pressure exerted by a saturated vapor above its own liquid in a closed container
    • Expressed in psi, kPa, mmHg, or atm
    • The higher a substance’s temperature, the higher the vapor pressure
    • Vapor pressures reported on MSDSs are usually very low
    • The lower a substance’s boiling point, the higher its vapor pressure

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Operational Level

properties of hazardous materials15
Properties ofHazardous Materials
  • Atmospheric pressure — Force exerted by weight of the atmosphere at the earth’s surface
  • Boiling point — Temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to or greater than atmospheric pressure
    • Expressed in degrees Fahrenheit or Celsius at sea level air pressure

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Operational Level

properties of hazardous materials16
Properties ofHazardous Materials
  • BLEVE (Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion) — Occurs when a liquid within a container is heated, causing the material inside to boil or vaporize beyond the vessel’s ability to relieve the excess pressure
  • Melting point — Temperature at which a solid substance changes to a liquid state at normal atmospheric pressure

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Operational Level

properties of hazardous materials17
Properties ofHazardous Materials
  • Freezing point — The temperature at which a liquid becomes a solid at normal atmospheric pressure
  • Sublime — To change directly from a solid into a gas without going into a liquid state in between
  • Vapor density — Weight of a given volume of pure vapor or gas compared to the weight of an equal volume of dry air at the same temperature and volume

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Operational Level

properties of hazardous materials18
Properties ofHazardous Materials
  • Solubility — The percentage of a material (by weight) that will dissolve in water at ambient temperature
    • Non-water-soluble liquids remain separate when combined with water; water-soluble liquids mix easily when combined with water.
    • Water-soluble agents usually cause upper respiratory tract infection, quickly resulting in coughing and throat irritation.
    • Partially water-soluble agents penetrate into the lower respiratory systems causing delayed symptoms that include breathing difficulties, pulmonary edema, and coughing up blood.

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Operational Level

properties of hazardous materials19
Properties ofHazardous Materials
  • Miscibility/immiscibility — The degree or readiness with which two or more gases or liquids are able to mix with or dissolve into each other
    • Miscible — Liquids that dissolve into each other
    • Immiscible — Liquids that do not readily dissolve into each other
  • Specific gravity — Ratio of the density (heaviness) of a material to the density of some standard material at standard conditions of pressure and temperature

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Operational Level

properties of hazardous materials20
Properties ofHazardous Materials
  • Reactivity — A substance’s relative ability to undergo a chemical reaction with another material
    • Substances referred to as “reactive” commonly react violently with air, water, heat, light, each other, or other materials

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Operational Level

reactivity triangle
Reactivity Triangle
  • The reactivity triangle explains the basic components of many chemical reactions.
      • Oxidizing agent (oxygen)
      • Reducing agent (fuel)
      • Activation energy source (often heat)

Operational Level

properties of hazardous materials22
Properties ofHazardous Materials
  • Polymerization — Chemical reaction in which a catalyst causes simple molecules to combine to form long chain molecules
  • Inhibitors — Materials that are added to products that easily polymerize in order to control or prevent an undesired reaction

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Operational Level

nfa categories of hazardous materials hazards
NFA Categories ofHazardous Materials Hazards
  • Thermal
  • Radiological
  • Asphyxiation
  • Chemical
  • Etiological
  • Mechanical
  • Psychological

Operational Level

types of radiation
Types of Radiation
  • Alpha particles
  • Beta particles
  • Gamma rays
  • X-rays
  • Neutrons

Operational Level

alpha particles
Alpha Particles
  • Are positively charged particles that lose energy rapidly in matter and do not penetrate very far
  • Are commonly emitted in the radioactive decay of the heaviest radioactive elements such as uranium and radium as well as by some manmade elements
  • Are usually completely absorbed by dead outer layer of human skin and so are not a hazard outside the body

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Operational Level

alpha particles26
Alpha Particles
  • Can be very harmful if the material emitting the alpha particles are ingested or inhaled
  • Can be stopped completely by a sheet of paper

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Operational Level

beta particles
Beta Particles
  • Are fast-moving positively or negatively charged electrons
  • Are emitted from manmade and natural sources such as tritium, carbon-14, and strontium-90
  • Are more penetrating but less damaging than alpha particles over equally traveled distances

(1 of 2)

Operational Level

beta particles28
Beta Particles
  • Are capable of penetrating the skin and causing radiation damage, but are more hazardous when inhaled or ingested
  • Can be reduced or stopped by a layer of clothing or a few millimeters of a substance such as aluminum

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Operational Level

gamma rays
Gamma Rays
  • Are high-energy photons
  • Often accompany alpha or beta particle emissions
  • Have no charge but are very penetrating, easily passing through the human body and being absorbed by tissue

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Operational Level

gamma rays30
Gamma Rays
  • Require several feet (meters) of concrete or a few inches (millimeters) of lead to stop the more energetic gamma rays
  • Can easily penetrate standard fire-fighting clothing, which provides no protection from gamma rays

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Operational Level

x rays
X-Rays
  • Are high-energy photons produced by the interaction of charged particles with matter
  • Have essentially the same properties as gamma rays but differ in origin (originate outside the nucleus while gamma rays originate inside the nucleus)
  • Are the single-largest source of manmade radiation exposure

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Operational Level

x rays32
X-Rays
  • Are generally lower in energy and thus less penetrating than gamma rays
  • Can be stopped with a few millimeters of lead (medical X-rays)

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Operational Level

neutrons
Neutrons
  • Are ultrahigh energy particles that have a physical mass like alpha radiation but no electrical charge
  • Are highly penetrating
  • Are produced along with gamma radiation from fission reactions

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Operational Level

neutrons34
Neutrons
  • Are not a type of radiation commonly used in commercial or industrial operations
  • Are most likely encountered in research laboratories
  • Cause the release of secondary radiation and thus are a health hazard

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Operational Level

radiation exposure
Radiation Exposure
  • Occurs when radioactive particles or rays enter the body through one or more routes of entry such as inhalation, ingestion, skin contact, or penetration

Operational Level

radiation contamination
Radiation Contamination
  • Occurs when radioactive material is deposited on surfaces, skin, clothing, or any place where it is not desired
    • External — Radioactive material is on the skin or clothing.
    • Internal — Radioactive material is breathed in, swallowed, or absorbed through wounds.
    • Environmental — Radioactive material is spread about or unconfined in the environment thus presenting another potential source for external exposure

Operational Level

routes of entry
Routes of Entry
  • Inhalation
  • Ingestion
  • Skin contact

Operational Level

radiation protection strategies
Radiation Protection Strategies
  • Time — The amount of radiation exposure increases or decreases according to the time spent near the source of radiation.
  • Distance — Farther distances equal smaller doses.
  • Shielding — Certain materials prevent penetration of some of the radioactive particles.

Operational Level

factors to consider regarding radiation protection
Factors to ConsiderRegarding Radiation Protection

Time

Shielding

Distance

Operational Level

caution
CAUTION!
  • Wearing personal protective equipment (including self-contained breathing apparatus) generally protects emergency response personnel from external and internal contaminates. It does not protect against exposure to gamma rays.

Operational Level

asphyxiation terms
Asphyxiation Terms
  • Asphyxiants — Substances that affect the oxygenation of the body and generally lead to suffocation
  • Simple asphyxiants — Gases that displace the oxygen necessary for breathing
  • Chemical asphyxiants — Substances that prohibit the body from using oxygen

Operational Level

routes by which people can be exposed to hazardous materials
Routes by Which People can be Exposed to Hazardous Materials
  • Inhalation
  • Ingestion
  • Skin contact

Operational Level

toxin categories and associated medical conditions
Toxin Categories andAssociated Medical Conditions
  • Asphyxiants — Suffocation
  • Carcinogens — Cancer
  • Corrosives — Irreversible destruction or alteration of contacted tissue
  • Irritants — Reversible inflammation of contacted tissue
  • Hemotoxins — Cyanosis, loss of consciousness, death
  • Sensitizers — Allergic reaction

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Operational Level

toxin categories and associated medical conditions44
Toxin Categories andAssociated Medical Conditions
  • Hepatoxins — Liver damage
  • Nephrotoxins — Kidney damage
  • Reproductive toxins — Fetal defects, birth defects, sterility
  • Cutaneous hazards — Defatting of skin, rashes, skin irritation
  • Eye hazards — Conjunctivitis, corneal damage, visual impairment, blindness

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Operational Level

toxicity terms
Toxicity Terms
  • Lethal dose (LD) — Minimum amount of solid or liquid that when ingested, absorbed, or injected through the skin will kill
  • Median lethal dose (LD50) — Statistically derived single dose of a substance that can be expected to cause death in 50 percent of animals when administered by the oral route
  • Lethal dose low (LDLO or LDL) — Lowest administered dose of a material capable of killing a specified test species

(1 of 2)

Operational Level

toxicity terms46
Toxicity Terms
  • Lethal concentration (LC) — Minimum concentration of an inhaled substance in the gaseous state that will be fatal to the test group
  • Lethal concentration low (LCLO or LCL) — Lowest concentration of a gas or vapor capable of killing a specified species over a specified time
  • ID50 — Dose that incapacitates 50 percent of the population of interest
  • ID10 — Dose that incapacitates 10 percent of the population of interest

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Operational Level

chemical effects
Chemical Effects
  • Irritants — Toxins that cause temporary but sometimes severe inflammation to the eyes, skin, or respiratory system
    • Upper irritant — Affects respiratory tract above the voice box
    • Lower irritant — Affects respiratory tract below the voice box, including the lungs
  • Convulsants — Toxic materials that can cause convulsions (involuntary muscle contractions)

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Operational Level

chemical effects48
Chemical Effects
  • Corrosives — Chemicals that destroy or burn living tissues and have destructive hazards
    • Acid — Any chemical that ionizes to yield hydrogen ions in water; has pH value of 0 to 6
    • Base — Any water-soluble compound that breaks apart in water to form a negatively charged hydroxide ion; has pH value of 8 to 14
    • Can be toxic, flammable, reactive, and/or explosive
  • Carcinogens — Cancer-causing agents

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Operational Level

chemical effects49
Chemical Effects
  • Mutagens — Substances or agents that are capable of altering the genetic material in a living cell
  • Teratogens — Substances or agents capable of causing developmental abnormalities in utero
  • Allergens — Substances that cause allergic reactions in people or animals
  • Sensitizers — Chemicals that cause a substantial proportion of exposed people or animals to develop an allergic reaction after repeated exposure to the chemical

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Operational Level

signs and symptoms of hazardous materials exposure
Signs and Symptoms of Hazardous Materials Exposure
  • Confusion, light-headedness, anxiety, and dizziness
  • Blurred or double vision
  • Changes in skin color or blushing
  • Coughing or painful respiration
  • Tingling or numbness of extremities
  • Loss of coordination
  • Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramping, and diarrhea

(1 of 2)

Operational Level

signs and symptoms of hazardous materials exposure51
Signs and Symptoms of Hazardous Materials Exposure
  • Changes in behavior or mannerisms
  • Unconsciousness
  • Burning eyes, throat, or nose
  • Headache
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Tightness in chest
  • Abnormal euphoria

(2 of 2)

Operational Level

operational level lesson 1 presentation52

Operational Level Lesson 1 Presentation

Hazardous Materials for First Responders, 3rd Ed.