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Operational Level Lesson 7 Presentation. Hazardous Materials for First Responders, 3 rd Ed. Terrorism.

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operational level lesson 7 presentation

Operational Level Lesson 7 Presentation

Hazardous Materials for First Responders, 3rd Ed.

terrorism
Terrorism
  • The unlawful use of force against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population or any segment thereof, in the furtherance of political or social objectives.

According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation

Operational Level

weapons of mass destruction
Weapons of Mass Destruction
  • Any weapon or device that is intended, or has the capability, to cause death or serious bodily injury to a significant number of people through the release, dissemination, or impact of:
    • Toxic or poisonous chemicals or their precursors
    • A disease organism
    • Radiation or radiactivity

According to the United States Code

Operational Level

goals of terrorist operations
Goals of Terrorist Operations
  • Recognition
  • Coercion
  • Intimidation
  • Provocation

Operational Level

circumstances faced that are different from routine emergencies
Circumstances Faced that are Different from Routine Emergencies
  • Large numbers of casualties
  • Materials that first responders have little experience dealing with
  • Secondary events intended to incapacitate or delay emergency responders
  • Armed resistance
  • Use of weapons
  • Booby traps
  • Secondary contamination from handling patients

Operational Level

potential terrorist targets
Potential Terrorist Targets
  • Public assembly occupancies and locations
  • Public buildings
  • Mass transit systems
  • Places with high economic impact
  • Telecommunications facilities
  • Places with historical or symbolic significance
  • Military installations
  • Airports
  • Industrial facilities

Operational Level

cues to consider the possibility of terrorism
Cues to Consider thePossibility of Terrorism
  • A report of two or more medical emergencies in public locations such as a shopping mall, transportation hub, mass transit system, office building, assembly occupancy, or other public buildings
  • An unusually large number of people with similar signs and symptoms coming or being transported to physicians’ offices or medical emergency rooms

(1 of 2)

Operational Level

cues to consider the possibility of terrorism1
Cues to Consider thePossibility of Terrorism
  • A reported explosion at a movie theater, department store, office building, government building, or a location with historical or symbolic significance

(2 of 2)

Operational Level

categories of terrorist attacks
Categories of Terrorist Attacks
  • Biological
  • Nuclear
  • Incendiary
  • Chemical
  • Explosive

Operational Level

biological attacks
Biological Attacks
  • Type of biological agents
    • Viral agents
    • Bacterial agents
    • Rickettsias
    • Biological toxins

(1 of 6)

Operational Level

biological attacks1
Biological Attacks
  • Indicators of terrorist activity involving biological agents
    • Unusual numbers of sick or dying people or animals
    • Unscheduled and unusual spray being disseminated
    • Abandoned spray devices

(2 of 6)

Operational Level

biological attacks2
Biological Attacks
  • Evidence of terrorist activity may be visible at the incident, OR
  • Terrorist activity may not be obviously evident

(3 of 6)

Operational Level

biological attacks3
Biological Attacks
  • Type A biological agents
    • Can be easily disseminated or transmitted person-to-person
    • Cause high mortality and subsequently have a major public health impact
    • Might cause public panic and social disruption
    • Requires special action for public health preparedness
    • Examples: Smallpox, anthrax, plague, botulism

(4 of 6)

Operational Level

biological attacks4
Biological Attacks
  • Type B biological agents
    • Are moderately easy to disseminate
    • Cause moderate morbidity and low mortality
    • Require specific enhancements of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s diagnostic capacity and enhanced disease surveillance
    • Examples: Brucellosis, epsilon toxin of clostridium perfringens, glanders

(5 of 6)

Operational Level

biological attacks5
Biological Attacks
  • Type C biological agents — Emerging pathogens that could be engineered for mass dissemination in the future because of their:
    • Availability
    • Ease of production and dissemination
    • Potential for high morbidity and mortality and major health impact
    • Examples: Nipah virus, hantaviruses, tickborne hemorrhagic fever viruses

(6 of 6)

Operational Level

nuclear radiological attacks
Nuclear/Radiological Attacks
  • Three scenarios most likely:
    • Detonation of a conventional explosive device incorporating nuclear materials (commonly known as a dirty bomb)
    • An attack on a source of nuclear materials such as detonating a truck bomb in the vicinity of a nuclear power plant or radiological cargo in transport
    • Detonation (or threatening to detonate) a nuclear bomb, improvised nuclear device, or suitcase bomb

(1 of 2)

Operational Level

nuclear radiological attacks1
Nuclear/Radiological Attacks
  • Types of nuclear/radiological bombs that terrorists might use
    • Dirty bomb
    • Atomic/nuclear device (bomb)
    • Improvised nuclear device (IND)
    • Suitcase bomb
    • Nuclear power plant sabotage or attack

(2 of 2)

Operational Level

incendiary devices
Incendiary Devices
  • Any mechanical, electrical, or chemical device used intentionally to initiate combustion and start a fire
  • Examples of easily made devices
    • Bottle, gasoline, rag, match (Molotov cocktail)
    • Low flashpoint flammable liquid and a candle
    • Match heads and sulfuric acid
    • Road flare ignited by a model rocket fuse

(1 of 2)

Operational Level

incendiary devices1
Incendiary Devices
  • Indicators
    • Warning or threat of an attack
    • Accelerant odors
    • Multiple fires
    • Incendiary device components
    • Unexpectedly heavy burning or high temperatures
    • Unusually fast-burning fires
    • Unusual colored smoke or flames
    • Presence of propane or other flammable gas cylinders in unusual locations

(2 of 2)

Operational Level

chemical attacks
Chemical Attacks
  • The deliberate release of a toxic gas, liquid, or solid that can poison people and the environment
  • May involve chemical warfare agents or toxic industrial materials (TIMs)
  • Effects are usually noticed quickly, within minutes to hours
  • Results are usually disabling or fatal

(1 of 5)

Operational Level

chemical attacks1
Chemical Attacks
  • Indicators of terrorist activity involving chemical agents
    • Dead animals/birds/fish
    • Lack of insect life
    • Unexplained odors
    • Pattern of casualties
    • Blisters/rashes

(2 of 5)

Operational Level

chemical attacks2
Chemical Attacks
  • Indicators of terrorist activity involving chemical agents
    • Illness in confined area
    • Unusual liquid droplets
    • Different looking areas
    • Low-lying clouds

(3 of 5)

Operational Level

chemical attacks3
Chemical Attacks
  • Indicators of terrorist activity involving chemical agents
    • Unusual metal debris
    • Unusual numbers of dying or sick people (mass casualties)

(4 of 5)

Operational Level

chemical attacks4
Chemical Attacks
  • Chemical-agent types
    • Nerve agents
    • Blister agents (vesicants)
    • Blood agents (cyanide agents)
    • Choking agents (pulmonary or lung-damaging agents)
    • Riot control agents (irritants)
    • Toxic industrial materials (normal hazardous materials used for terrorist purposes)

(5 of 5)

Operational Level

nerve agents
Nerve Agents
  • Attack the nervous system by affecting the transmission of impulses
  • Routes of entry
    • Inhalation
    • Through the skin
  • Symptoms
    • Increased production of saliva
    • Runny nose
    • Feeling of pressure on the chest

(1 of 3)

Operational Level

nerve agents1
Nerve Agents
  • Tabun (GA) — Usually a low-volatility persistent chemical agent that is taken up through skin contact and inhalation of the substance as a gas or aerosol; DOT hazard class 6.1
  • Sarin (GB) — Usually a volatile nonpersistent chemical agent mainly taken up through inhalation; class 6.1
  • Soman (GD) — Usually a moderately volatile chemical agent that can be taken up by inhalation or skin contact; class 6.1

(2 of 3)

Operational Level

nerve agents2
Nerve Agents
  • Cyclohexyl sarin (GF) — A low-volatility persistent chemical agent that is taken up through skin contact and inhalation of the substance either as a gas or aerosol
  • V-agent (VX) — A low-volatility persistent chemical agent that can remain on material, equipment, and terrain for long periods; class 6.1

(3 of 3)

Operational Level

blister agents vesicants
Blister Agents (Vesicants)
  • Burn and blister the skin or any other part of the body they contact
  • Groupings
    • Mustard agents
      • Examples: Sulfur mustards (class 6.1), nitrogen mustards (class 6.1)
    • Arsenical vesicants
      • Examples: Lewisite (class 6.1), mustard/lewisite mixture, phenyldichloroarsine
    • Halogenated oximes
      • Example: Phosgene oxime (no hazard class found)

(1 of 2)

Operational Level

blister agents vesicants1
Blister Agents (Vesicants)
  • Routes of entry
    • Are readily absorbed by all parts of the body
  • Symptoms
    • Inflammation
    • Blisters
    • General destruction of tissues

(2 of 2)

Operational Level

blood agents
Blood Agents
  • Chemical asphyxiants that interfere with oxygen utilization at the cellular level
  • Types
    • Arsine (SA) (class 2.3)
    • Hydrogen cyanide (AC) (class 6.1)
    • Cyanogen chloride (CK) (class 2.3)

Operational Level

choking agents
Choking Agents
  • Chemicals that attack the lungs causing tissue damage
  • Types
    • Phosgene (CG) (class 2.3)
    • Chlorine (CL) (class 2.3)

Operational Level

riot control agents irritating agents
Riot Control Agents(Irritating Agents)
  • Chemical compounds that temporarily make people unable to function by causing immediate irritation to the eyes, mouth, throat, lungs, and skin
  • Types
    • Chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS, tear gas) (class 6.1)
    • Chloroacetophenone (CN, mace) (class 6.1)
    • Dibenzoxazepine (CR) (class 6.1)
    • Chloropicrin (PS) (class 6.1)
    • Oleoresin capsicum (OC, pepper spray) (class 2.2)

Operational Level

explosive attack classes
Explosive Attack Classes
  • High explosives — Decompose extremely rapidly (almost instantaneously)
    • Examples: Plastic explosives, nitroglycerin, TNT, blasting caps, dynamite
  • Low explosives — Decompose rapidly, but don’t produce an explosive effect unless they’re confined; they deflagrate (burn rapidly)

(1 of 3)

Operational Level

explosive attack classes1
Explosive Attack Classes
  • Primary explosives — Are easily initiated and highly sensitive to heat
    • Examples: Lead azide, mercury fulminate, lead styphnate
  • Secondary explosives — Are designed to detonate only under specific circumstances; are less sensitive to heat or flame
    • Example: TNT
  • Propellants — Deflagrate rather than explode
    • Example: Black powder

(2 of 3)

Operational Level

explosive attack classes2
Explosive Attack Classes

(3 of 3)

Operational Level

commercial and military explosives
Commercial andMilitary Explosives
  • Ammonium nitrate — Is a common fertilizer that can be mixed with diesel fuel or oil to form an explosive mixture
  • Binary explosives — Are composed of two different chemical components, one a solid and one a liquid
  • Black powder — Is made from a mixture of potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate, sulfur, and charcoal

(1 of 8)

Operational Level

commercial and military explosives1
Commercial andMilitary Explosives
  • Composition C-4 — Is a mixture of cyclotetramethylene-tetranitramine/cyclonite (RDX), polyisabutylene, and fuel oil
  • Dynamite
    • Straight — Contains nitroglycerin and an absorbent mixture such as saw dust and sodium nitrate
    • Ammonia-granular — Contains ammonium nitrate rather than nitroglycerin

(2 of 8)

Operational Level

commercial and military explosives2
Commercial andMilitary Explosives
  • Dynamite
    • Semigelatin — Are similar to ammonia-granular, but have a small amount of guncotton and additional nitroglycerin added to form a gel
    • Straight gelatin — Is composed of blasting gelatin, a stiff gel made of nitroglycerin mixed with other ingredients, including guncotton and sodium nitrate
    • Ammonia gelatin — Is made by mixing ammonium nitrate and other ingredients with blasting gelatin; is waterproof and used for underwater applications

(3 of 8)

Operational Level

commercial and military explosives3
Commercial andMilitary Explosives
  • Emulsion explosives — Are made by suspending or mixing tiny, submicroscopic droplets of an oxidizer in a fuel such as mineral oil or fuel oil
  • Guncotton (nitrocellulose, nitrocotton) — Is created by bathing cotton or purified wool cellulose in a mix of sulphuric and nitric acids

(4 of 8)

Operational Level

commercial and military explosives4
Commercial andMilitary Explosives
  • HMX (high melting explosive) — Is a colorless solid that dissolves slightly in water
  • RDX (royal demolition explosive) — Is a white powder that is very explosive; is usually mixed with other materials; is used in detonation cord and blasting caps

(5 of 8)

Operational Level

commercial and military explosives5
Commercial andMilitary Explosives
  • PETN (pentaerythritol tetranitrate) — Is primarily used in booster and bursting charges of small caliber ammunition, in upper charges of small caliber ammunition, in upper charges of detonators in some land mines and shells, and as the explosive core of primacord (an explosive fuse)
  • SEMTEX — Is a highly malleable plastic explosive; is primarily composed of RDX and PETN

(6 of 8)

Operational Level

commercial and military explosives6
Commercial andMilitary Explosives
  • Smokeless powder — Is an explosive propellant that was designed to replace black powder
  • TATB (triaminotrinitrobenzene) — Is a heat resistant, insensitive high explosive
  • Tetryl — Is used as an explosive component of chemical bombs, demolition blocks, and cast-shaped charges

(7 of 8)

Operational Level

commercial and military explosives7
Commercial andMilitary Explosives
  • TNT — Is a yellow, odorless solid; is used in military shells, bombs, grenades, in industrial uses, and in underwater blasting
  • Water gels — Were originally composed of ammonium nitrate, TNT, and gelatinizing agents; more recent versions may contain aluminum and other metallic fuels

(8 of 8)

Operational Level

improvised explosive devices ieds
Improvised Explosive Devices(IEDs)
  • Are explosive devices that are constructed in an improvised manner
  • Are categorized by their container
  • Are homemade and usually constructed for a specific target
  • Usually have a firing train that consists of a fusing system, detonator, and main charge

Operational Level

types of ieds
Types of IEDs
  • Vehicle bombs
  • Pipe bombs
  • Satchel/backpack/knapsack/briefcase, or box bomb
  • Mail/package/letter bomb
  • Plastic bottle bombs
  • Fireworks
  • M-devices
  • CO2 grenades
  • Tennis ball bombs

Operational Level

clandestine labs
Clandestine Labs
  • Labs set up to produce or manufacture illegal or controlled substances such as drugs, chemical warfare agents, explosives, or biological agents
  • Clandestine drug labs
    • 80-90% of clandestine drug labs are set up to produce methamphetamine; first responders should be familiar with the products and equipment used in these labs
    • Are extremely dangerous for responders due to the fact that the chemicals used are often highly flammable, corrosive, and toxic

Operational Level

products commonly used in making methamphetamine
Products Commonly Used in Making Methamphetamine
  • Acetone
  • Anhydrous ammonia
  • Ephedrine
  • Ethyl alcohol/denatured alcohol/ethanol/grain alcohol
  • Hydrochloric acid/muriatic acid
  • Hydrogen peroxide
  • Hypophosphorous acid
  • Iodine
  • Isopropyl alcohol
  • Lithium metal
  • Methyl alcohol

(1 of 2)

Operational Level

products commonly used in making methamphetamine1
Products Commonly Used in Making Methamphetamine
  • Mineral spirits/ petroleum distillate
  • Naphtha
  • Pseudoephedrine
  • Red phosphorous
  • Sodium hydroxide
  • Sulfuric acid
  • Toluene
  • Hydrogen chloride
  • Phosphine gas
  • Hydrogen iodide/ hydriodic acid gas
  • Hydriodic acid

(2 of 2)

Operational Level

equipment commonly used in making methamphetamine
Equipment Commonly Used in Making Methamphetamine
  • Condenser tubes
  • Filters
  • Funnels/turkey basters
  • Gas containers
  • Glassware
  • Heat source
  • Grinders
  • pH papers
  • Tubing

Operational Level

clues to the presence of methamphetamine labs
Clues to the Presence of Methamphetamine Labs
  • Windows covered with plastic or tin foil
  • Renters who pay landlords in cash
  • Unusual security systems or other devices
  • Excessive trash
  • Increased activity, especially at night
  • Unusual structures

(1 of 2)

Operational Level

clues to the presence of methamphetamine labs1
Clues to the Presence of Methamphetamine Labs
  • Discoloration of structures, pavement, and soil
  • Strong odor of solvents
  • Smell of ammonia, starting fluid, or ether
  • Iodine- or chemical-stained bathroom or kitchen fixtures

(2 of 2)

Operational Level

additional actions at terrorist or criminal activity incidents
Additional Actions at Terrorist or Criminal Activity Incidents
  • Notify authorities.
    • Law enforcement, other emergency responders, and EMS personnel
    • Other local, state/provincial, or federal/national agencies and health or medical providers
    • Additional trained and equipped personnel immediately (i.e., bomb technicians
  • Preserve crime scene evidence.

(1 of 2)

Operational Level

additional actions at terrorist or criminal activity incidents1
Additional Actions at Terrorist or Criminal Activity Incidents
  • Take additional measures to isolate exposed people and animals.
  • Take additional measures to secure the scene.
  • Take additional precautions with regard to the possibility of secondary devices.
  • Exercise additional caution in regards to other potential hazards associated with terrorist and criminal activities.

(2 of 2)

Operational Level

the importance of crime scene evidence preservation
The Importance of Crime Scene Evidence Preservation
  • It is important for first responders to preserve evidence so that investigators can identify and successfully prosecute the guilty parties.

Operational Level

guidelines for preserving evidence
Guidelines forPreserving Evidence
  • Unless you must touch something, DON’T.
  • Avoid disturbing areas not directly involved in rescue activities.
  • Remember what the scene looked like upon first arrival as well as details about the progression of the incident.

(1 of 3)

Operational Level

guidelines for preserving evidence1
Guidelines forPreserving Evidence
  • Document your observations as quickly as you can.
  • Take photographs and videos of the scene as soon as possible.
  • When you must touch or move something, remember what you did. In your report, document where it was and where you put it. If you can, photograph it before you do anything.
  • Minimize the number of people working in the area, if possible.

(2 of 3)

Operational Level

guidelines for preserving evidence2
Guidelines forPreserving Evidence
  • Leave fatalities and their surroundings undisturbed.
  • Identify witnesses, victims, and the presence of evidence.
  • Preserve potentially transient physical evidence (e.g., evidence present on victims, evidence that may be compromised by weather conditions such as chemical residue, body fluids, or footprints).

(3 of 3)

Operational Level

biological attack incidents
Biological Attack Incidents
  • Many people are potentially at risk
    • Traditional first responders who transport ill patients to medical facilities
    • Health care workers who care for patients in hospitals, residential facilities, outpatient settings, at home, or elsewhere
    • Laboratory personnel handling clinical specimens
    • Health department staff who visit patients in or out of health care facilities while conducting outbreak assessment or control measures

(1 of 3)

Operational Level

biological attack incidents1
Biological Attack Incidents
  • First responders and others involved in patient transport should take additional precautions.
    • Run the ambulance ventilation system on its highest setting using outside air circulation, which will minimize air changes in the vehicle.
    • For diseases that are transmitted by respiratory transmission, the patient should wear a surgical mask, disposable respirator, or, if needed for respiratory support, an oxygen mask that does not exhaust to ambient air.

(2 of 3)

Operational Level

biological attack incidents2
Biological Attack Incidents
  • First responders and others involved in patient transport should take additional precautions.
    • Responders transporting patients with different diseases may require different levels of worker respiratory protection.

(3 of 3)

Operational Level

nuclear radiological incidents
Nuclear/Radiological Incidents
  • Use radiation and contamination survey instruments to determine radiation levels.
  • Use the principles of time, distance, and shielding to protect against radiation exposure.
  • Stay away from ground zero. Enter the surrounding area only to save lives, and only if wearing appropriate PPE. Radiation levels may be very high in these areas.
  • Establish control zones like other incidents.

(1 of 4)

Operational Level

nuclear radiological incidents1
Nuclear/Radiological Incidents
  • Isolate, evacuate, and/or shelter the public in place as appropriate.
  • Wear respiratory protection to reduce the dose from inhalation of radioactive dust.
  • Wear PPE. Standard firefighting gear or easily removed outer clothing is sufficient to protect from alpha and beta radiation, but it may not protect against other environmental hazards.

(2 of 4)

Operational Level

nuclear radiological incidents2
Nuclear/Radiological Incidents
  • Avoid skin contact with radioactive dust. Protect open wounds or abrasions from radioactive contamination by covering them.
  • Do not eat, drink, chew, or smoke while exposed to potentially radioactive dust or smoke. When it is absolutely necessary to drink water, drink from a canteen or other closed container.

(3 of 4)

Operational Level

nuclear radiological incidents3
Nuclear/Radiological Incidents
  • Remember that physical injuries are more serious than radioactive contamination. Deal with life-threatening conventional injuries first.
  • Decontaminate.

(4 of 4)

Operational Level

incendiary incidents
Incendiary Incidents
  • Only specially trained personnel should handle incendiary devices discovered prior to ignition.
  • If it is suspected that an incendiary device started the fire, proper handling of potential evidence is critical for crime scene preservation.

Operational Level

chemical agent incidents
Chemical Agent Incidents
  • Expect at least a 5:1 ratio of unaffected to affected casualties.
  • Decontaminate victims as soon as possible.
  • Disrobe victims from head to toe to decontaminate successfully. The more clothing that can be removed, the better.
  • Flush with water; generally this is the best mass decontamination method.
  • Decontaminate after a known exposure to liquid chemical agent as soon as possible to avoid serious effects.

Operational Level

chemical agent decontamination
Chemical Agent Decontamination

Disrobing

Showering

Operational Level

explosives bomb incidents
Explosives/Bomb Incidents
  • Agencies that may be called for extra assistance:
    • Local bomb technicians
    • State Bureaus of Investigation
    • Explosives ordnance detachments (military)

Operational Level

operational level lesson 7 presentation1

Operational Level Lesson 7 Presentation

Hazardous Materials for First Responders, 3rd Ed.