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Awareness in Agriculture. Preventing Infectious Diseases. Refresher. Biosecurity is a set of management practices that prevent infectious diseases from being carried into a herd. Old and New Diseases. Old diseases Brucellosis Tuberculosis Johne’s Disease Leukosis

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Awareness in agriculture

Awareness in Agriculture

Preventing Infectious Diseases


Biosecurity is a set of

management practices

that prevent infectious

diseases from being

carried into a herd

Old and new diseases
Old and New Diseases

  • Old diseases

    • Brucellosis

    • Tuberculosis

    • Johne’s Disease

    • Leukosis

  • New or re-emerging diseases

    • West Nile Virus

    • Hanta Virus

    • Type II Bovine Viral Diarrhea

Foreign diseases
Foreign Diseases

  • Foreign animal diseases

    • Foot and Mouth Disease

    • Hog Cholera

    • Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    • African Horse Sickness

  • Bioterrorist diseases

    • Anthrax

    • Botulism

    • Plague

Awareness in agriculture

  • To prevent:

    • Death loss

    • Decreased weight gains

    • Reduced milk production

    • Premature culling of


    • Soaring production costs

  • We must prevent these infectious diseases from being carried into our herds.

Sounds easy right
Sounds easy, right?

  • Not really

  • Multiple infection routes

    • Fecal/oral

      E. coli, Salmonella, BVD, Johne’s

    • Milk and colostrum

      Johne’s, BVD, Salmonella, BLV

    • Nasal/saliva

      Salmonella, BVD, Mycoplasma

    • In utero

      Johne’s, Salmonella, BVD, BLV

Disease prevention strategies
Disease Prevention Strategies


Disease Testing




  • Keep incoming livestock away from the established herd

    • Food

    • Water

    • Air space

  • How long?


  • Effective against diseases with short incubation periods

    • Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis

    • Bovine Viral Diarrhea

    • Bovine Respiratory Syncitial Virus

  • Three weeks is generally adequate


  • Not an effective strategy for long incubation diseases or diseases with unapparent carriers

    • Tuberculosis

    • Brucellosis

    • Johne’s Disease

    • Leptospirosis

  • Additional biosecurity strategies must be used

Disease testing
Disease Testing

  • Test before purchasing

  • Accuracy is uncertain

  • Herd infection vs. individual infection

Disease testing1
Disease Testing

Test entire source herd


Purchase from producers participating in

disease certification programs

Disease testing2
Disease Testing

  • Consult with your veterinarian

    • Which tests to request

    • Which animals to test

    • How many animals to test


  • Should be used with other disease prevention tactics, because vaccination is not:

    • 100 percent effective

    • Available for all diseases

      • Ex. Cryptosporidia

  • Established herd and additions to the herd should be vaccinated


  • Sudden death diseases

    • Clostridia, Anthrax

  • Respiratory diseases

    • IBR, BVD, PI3, BRSV, Pasterurella, etc.

  • Abortion diseases

    • IBR, BVD, Lepto, Vibrio, Trichomonas

  • Diarrhea diseases (scours)

    • Rotavirus, Corona virus, E. coli


  • Many different brands and combinations are available

  • Base your vaccination decisions on:

    • Herd history

    • Management practices

    • Regional problems

    • Cost vs. benefits

    • Risk

    • Veterinary advice


  • Keep dogs, cats, birds, rodents and wildlife away from feed supplies.

    • Neospora, Salmonella, Cryptosporidia

  • Do not use manure handling equipment to feed cattle.

    • Johne’s Disease

    • E. coli 0157:H7

    • Salmonella

    • Coccidiosis


  • Protect the herd from exposure to infectious agents

    • Visitor attire

    • CLEAN footbath and brush

  • Practice cleanliness and be aware of environmental changes on a daily basis

  • Newborn calf management
    Newborn Calf Management

    Keep traffic to a minimum


    Work with youngest calves

    before working older calves

    Don t forget colostrum
    Don’t Forget Colostrum

    • Disease can be spread to calves through colostrum

    • Selection of colostrum donors

      • Healthy

        • Johne’s, BLV

      • Prolonged residence

      • Properly vaccinated

    Colostrum management
    Colostrum Management

    • Use one dam for one calf

    • Milk dam within one hour after calving if possible, not before calving

    • Clean udder and teats prior to milking

    • Do not store colostrum warm for second feeding

    • Save the excess colostrum frozen in Ziploc bags

    • Thaw colostrum properly to prevent damage to immunoglobulins

    Take this home
    Take this home!

    • Quarantine, disease testing, vaccination, sanitation

    • Most diseases are bought and paid for:

      • Replacements, other herd additions, leased bulls

    • Don’t forget:

      • Outside vehicles, equipment and visitors

    • Don’t overlook the established herd:

      • Separation of animals, order of chores, colostrum