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LS/TS. Semantic Communication. Agenda. Overview Semantic communication model Layers API Example application. Overview. Provide higher interaction model

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Ls ts


Semantic Communication


  • Overview

  • Semantic communication model

  • Layers

  • API

  • Example application


  • Provide higher interaction model

  • Messaging and Task scheduling is effectively addressed by CAL, MDAL, …, the structure of the exchange messages is application specific

  • The goal of SemCom is to provide a kind of message exchange system where the information transferred among different software agents is amenable to a deeper interpretation by humans or by automated interaction controllers and constraint enforcers.

  • Inspiration from philosophy, social sciences, biological systems

Semantic communication model
Semantic Communication Model

  • Message Content Model

  • Schema Representation (ontology)

  • Conversations

  • Layered Model

Layered model
Layered Model

  • Communication Tiers

  • Interaction – raw messages

  • Linguistic – single message, taxonomy

  • Domain – application specific information

  • Social - conversations

Linguistic tier
Linguistic Tier

  • Single messages

  • Application independent taxonomy of message kinds

  • Ideas from Agent Communication Languages, FIPA ACL spec.

  • Types of messages (performatives):

    • Request – to express a request for an action

    • Notify – to express the transfer of information about occurred event

    • Ask-If – to express closed yes/no questions

    • Ask-Which to express open questions

  • Agent Communication Language Ontology

  • What is ontology
    What is Ontology?

    • Short answer:

    • An ontology is a specification of a conceptualization

    • Every ontology defines:

      • a vocabulary - the set of terms used for modeling

      • a structure of the concepts in the model

      • the semantic interpretations of these terms.

    Acl ontology concepts
    ACL Ontology Concepts

    • Agent Communication Language – linguistic model

    • Actions can be executed or requested

    • Events can be consumed or notified

    Domain tier
    Domain Tier

    • SemCom recognizes importance of Domain Model (domain driven design)

      • what application does

  • Application specific information that agents typically exchange in messages -> topic of agent conversations

  • Domain Ontology

    • what the agents talk about

    • structured conversation topic

    • extends ACL ontology with three kinds of items

      • Domain Actions, Domain Events, Domain Object Descriptions

  • LS/TS supports automatic OWL to Java mapping and code generation

  • Social tier
    Social Tier

    • Conversation support

    • Interaction protocols

      • Requesting an Action

      • Notifying an Event

      • Asking a Query (open/closed questions)

    Request interaction
    Request Interaction

    • Request performative

    Notify interaction
    Notify Interaction

    • Notify performative

    Query interaction closed questions
    Query Interaction (closed questions)

    • Ask-If performativeTrue/False questions

    Query interaction open questions
    Query Interaction (open questions)

    • Ask-Which performative

    Semcom usage
    SemCom Usage

    • Identify information exchanged in communication

    • Create domain ontology of conversation topics or use/extend existing one

    • Class-level Model/View association: DomainContext

      • “one to many” association between an item in domain model and the ontological view

    View 1

    View 2

    Concept B

    Concept A

    Concept D

    Concept C

    Domain layer

    Concept A

    Domain Class B

    Domain Class A

    Domain Class D

    Domain Class C

    Semcom usage cont
    SemCom usage (cont.)

    • 2 Layers

      • Domain

      • Ontological proxies (views)

      • 3rd layer: Ontological concepts (SOFA)

  • Domain Context

    • Connection “point” betweendomain model and ontologicalviews

  • SOFA



    Ontological Proxies(view)

    Domain Layer

    Semcom usage cont1
    SemCom usage (cont.)

    • Automatic code generation of ontological interfaces from OWL

    • OWL -> Java mapping

    Semcom usage cont2
    SemCom usage (cont.)

    • DomainContext ctx = getDomainContext();

    • ctx.registerActionClass(Buy.class, DomainBuy.class, null, Buy.URI);

    • ctx.registerObjectDescriptionClass(Person.class, DomainPerson.class, Person.URI);

    • ctx.registerObjectDescriptionClass(Book.class, DomainBook.class, Book.URI);

    • //... some simple application logic here

    • DomainBuy buy = new DomainBuy();

    • buy.setSeller(new Person(“Mr. Anderson”));

    • buy.setBuyer(new Person(“Mr. Bean”));

    • Buy.setItem(new Book(“My Perfect Book Book About Agents”));

    • // … now send a request message using ontological view

    • Buy viewBuy = (Buy) ctx.getAction(buy);

    • viewBuy.request(someAgentId);

    Request example
    Request example

    • Description:Trivial ‘buy’ example, where buyer agent can send request messages to seller agent. Seller agents can perform a ‘buy’ action according to ‘seller’, ‘buyer’ and ‘item’ attributes in ‘buy’ action.

    Agent roles example cont
    Agent roles (example cont.)

    • Customer delegates buy action to buyer agent to act on behalf of him

    • Buyer contacts Seller or Reseller agent that executes “Buy” action, or delegates action to other agent




    Domain classes example cont
    Domain classes (example cont.)

    Buyer Domain

    • Domain entities

      • Person, Book – objects

      • Buy - action

    Seller Domain

    Domain ontology example cont
    Domain Ontology (example cont.)

    • Identifying entities that appear in communication

    • Buy

      • Action

  • Person

    • Object Description

  • Book

    • Object Description

  • Owl example cont
    OWL (example cont.)

    • <owl:Class rdf:ID="Book"> <rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource=""/> <rdfs:subClassOf> <owl:Restriction> <owl:onProperty> <owl:DatatypeProperty rdf:ID="Title"/> </owl:onProperty> <owl:cardinality rdf:datatype= >1</owl:cardinality> </owl:Restriction> </rdfs:subClassOf> </owl:Class>

    • <owl:DatatypeProperty rdf:about="#Title"> <rdfs:range rdf:resource=""/> <rdfs:domain rdf:resource="#Book"/></owl:DatatypeProperty>

    Interaction schema example cont
    Interaction schema (example cont.)

    • Request interaction- Buyer: Requester- Reseller: Executor1- Seller: Executor2

    • Let’s see the source