Alcohol Mrs. McWilliams 7th and 8th Grade Health
What is Alcohol? • Depressant • Contains an intoxicating substance called ethyl alcohol or ethanol • Produced by the fermentation process • The anaerobic (no oxygen) conversion of sugar to carbon dioxide and alcohol by yeast.
The concentration of alcohol in a beverage is the proof value • Proof value = 2X percentage alcohol. • Example: 100 proof (whiskey) contains 50% alcohol
ONE DRINK = 0.6 oz alcohol • 12 oz beer • 5 oz wine • Mixed drink with 1.5 oz of 80 proof liquor (40% alcohol) • Current recommendations are: • 1 drink/day for women • 2 drinks/day for men
Alcohol Use Patterns in the USA • 1/3 are abstainers • 2/3 are drinkers • 1/3 are light drinkers • 1/3 are moderate/heavy drinkers • 10% of the drinking population is considered heavy drinkers- they are responsible for 50% of all alcohol consumption in the US! • Annual Sales of alcohol average out to roughly 2.3 gallons of absolute alcohol per person!
Absorption and Metabolism • 20% rapidly absorbed into bloodstream • 75 % through upper part of the small intestine and the rest enters further along in the intestinal tract. • Metabolism of alcohol is in the liver. • 2-10% is not metabolized but is excreted through the sweat glands, lungs and kidneys.
Factors that Affect Alcohol Absorption • Strength of the beverage • Number of drinks consumed • Speed of consumption • Presence of food in stomach • Physical tolerance
Blood Alcohol Concentration • Percentage of alcohol in a measured amount of blood • Measured from exhaled breath or blood sample
Drinking and Driving • Drinking alcohol impairs vision, reaction time, and coordination. • DWI and DUI –leading cause of death among teens • Signs of intoxication can begin to appear as low as 0.02 • There is no acceptable BAC level for anyone under 21
Normal healthy liver Liver with cirrhosis
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome • Fetus is exposed to alcohol in a slower manner than an adult • Damage results in mental retardation • Other characteristics are low birth weight, facial abnormalities, widely spaced eyes, and a much smaller head • Full expression rate: 1-3 out of 1000 births • Partial expression rate: 3-9/100 births
Alcoholism- different patterns • Regular daily intake of large amounts • Regular heavy drinking limited to weekends • Long periods of sobriety interspersed with periods of binge drinking lasting weeks or months • Heavy drinking limited to periods of stress
Who Wants to be a Millionaire? Alcohol Edition
$100 Question A major factor in traffic accidents, homicides, and suicides for 16 to 24 year olds is a. alcohol use b. smoking cigarettes c. affiliation with gangs d. psychological disorders
$100 Answer a. Alcohol Use
$200 Question Teens often choose to drink because they think it • Increases their self confidence • sharpens perceptions • enhances memory • improves judgment
$200 Answer a. Increases their self confidence
$300 Question When a person stumbles and has difficulty walking after consuming alcohol, he or she • has withdrawal symptoms • is intoxicated • has alcohol poisoning • has a nervous system disorder
$300 Answer b. Is intoxicated
$500 Question True/ False Food in the stomach allows a person to drink heavily without becoming intoxicated.
$500 Answer False
$1,000 Question A physical and psychological dependence on the drug ethanol is • Addiction • Alcohol Poisoning • Intoxication • Alcoholism
$1,000 Question d. Alcoholism
$2,000 Question True/ False The liver is responsible for breaking down alcohol.
$2,000 Answer True
$4,000 question A condition is which the liver tissue is destroyed and replaced with useless scar tissue is • Fatty liver • Arteriosclerosis • Cirrhosis • Fermentation
$4,000 Answer c. Cirrhosis
$8,000 Question An inflammation or infection of the liver, sometimes caused by the toxic effects of alcohol is called • Fatty liver • Hepatitis • Cirrhosis • Fetal alcohol syndrome
$8,000 Answer b. Hepatitis
$16,000 Question True/False Some binge drinkers mistakenly believe that they are not really in trouble with alcohol because they do not drink every day.
$16,000 Answer True
$32,000 Question The chemical action of yeast on sugars is • Delirium tremens • Ethanol • Fermentation • Hydrolization
$32,000 Answer c. Fermentation
$64,000 Question True/ False Short term effects of alcohol use on the body can include cirrhosis and brain damage.
$64,000 Answer False
$125,000 Question True/False A serving of beer or wine contains less alcohol than a serving of whiskey.
$125,000 Answer False
$250,000 Question The first stage of alcoholism is characterized by • Malnutrition • Defensive behavior • Rationalization of drinking behavior • Reverse alcohol tolerance
$250,000 Answer c. Rationalization of drinking behavior
$500,000 Question In the United States, fetal alcohol syndrome is the leading cause of • Sudden infant death syndrome • Mental retardation • Alcoholic hepatitis • Stillbirth
$500,000 Answer b. Mental retardation
$1,000,000 Question True/ False The kidneys oxidize alcohol to form water, carbon dioxide, and energy.
$1,000,000 Answer False