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< Alternative Refrigerants >. Updated by: Yap Boon Thiam Technical Engineer Email: yapbt@oyl.com.my Date: 15/5/2012. Ozone Layers Ozone Depletion List of Refrigerants Montreal Protocol Kyoto Protocol R22 Alternatives. Contents. Ozone (O3 ) is a gas composed of three oxygen atoms.

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slide1

< Alternative Refrigerants>

Updated by:

Yap Boon Thiam

Technical Engineer

Email: yapbt@oyl.com.my

Date: 15/5/2012

slide2
Ozone Layers

Ozone Depletion

List of Refrigerants

Montreal Protocol

Kyoto Protocol

R22 Alternatives

Contents

ozone layer
Ozone (O3 ) is a gas composed of three oxygen atoms.

90% of the ozone is found in the upper atmosphere, 10-50km above earth surface (stratosphere).

The ozone layer absorbs most of the harmful ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation from the sun.

CFCs and HCFCs link to ozone layer depletion.

If the ozone layer depletes, more harmful UV-B radiation will reach the earth through the damaged ozone layer.

Ecological damages and health risk.

OZONE LAYER
ozone layer1
OZONE LAYER

Source: http://www.theozonehole.com/atmosphere.htm

ozone depletion
OZONE DEPLETION

Causes:

Source: http://chemistry.tutorvista.com/biochemistry/causes-of-ozone-depletion.html

ozone depletion1
In 1985, British scientists discovered a large

thinning in the ozone layer over the Antarctic

continent.

In September 1998, the Antarctic ozone hole

reached a record size of 25 million km2 ,or

two and half times the size of Europe.

UV-B levels are now about 7% higher than thirty years ago.(1970s)

UV-B radiation has increased dramatically nearer the poles, 22% higher in the Arctic and 130% higher in the Antarctic relative to values in the 1970s.

OZONE DEPLETION

Source: American Chemical Society [August 29, 2011]

ozone hole

OZONE DEPLETION

OZONE “HOLE”

Source: http://chemistry.tutorvista.com/biochemistry/causes-of-ozone-depletion.html

list of refrigerant
LIST OF REFRIGERANT

Source: www.ashrae.org/technology/page/1933

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LIST OF REFRIGERANT

GLOBAL WARMING POTENTIAL

(GWP)

OZONE DEPLETION POTENTIAL

(ODP)

Based on R12 GWP= 1

TOTAL EQUIVALENT

WARMING IMPACT

(TEWI)

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MONTREAL PROTOCOL

  • Developed under the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in 1987.
  • Objective is to protect the Ozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous Ozone depletion substances.
  • Requirement to phase out CFCs in year 1996 and HCFCs in year 2030.
  • In Malaysia, CFCs total phase out in year 2010. HCFCs total phase out in year 2040.
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KYOTO PROTOCOL

World Top Ten GHGs Emitters (2010)

Source: BP, Statistical Review of World Energy (London: June 2011)

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R22 ALTERNATIVES

To phase out R22, alternatives to R22 should be chosen carefully

though overall evaluations:

  • Energy efficiency
  • Total emission
  • Safety
  • Economic aspects
  • There are several candidates:
  • HFC32 : Intermediate GWP and efficient
  • Propane(R290): Natural and efficiency but highly flammable
  • CO2: Natural but poor in efficiency
  • HFC410A: High GWP but applications are widely commercialized
  • In comprehensive points of view, R32 is recommended as best
  • alternative to new split air conditioners.
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R22 ALTERNATIVES

Energy Efficiency

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R22 ALTERNATIVES

Total Emissions