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  1. forgoodnesssake Understanding and Responding to Challenging and Aggressive Behaviour Dr. Jean Clinton Lois Saunders

  2. 05-042 S. Suomi

  3. 00-053 Non Human Primate Development Poor Mothering First 6 Months of Life Increased anxiety and depression as adults Excessive alcohol consumption Impulse aggression and violent behaviour Females tend to be poor mothers Highest risk genetically predisposed to high cortisol levels during development

  4. 00-054 Poorly Nurtured Rhesus Monkey Infants Biological Changes High cortisol levels to mild stress Chronic deficits in serotonin metabolism Disrupted circadian rhythms for cortisol

  5. Cycle of Stress 04-038 Cortex Amygdala LocusCoeruleus Brain Stem Glucocortocoids (Cortisol) Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Norepinephrine Adrenal Gland


  6. 03-002 Emotional Stimulus Amygdala Hippocampus - + - + Hypothalamus PVN Cortisol Cortisol CRF PIT ACTH Adrenal Cortex LeDoux, Synaptic Self

  7. 04-023 ParaventricularNucleus Hypothalamus CRH Vasopressin Cortisol PituitaryGland ACTH AdrenalGland BloodVessel ACTH Cortisol Kidney Stress Pathway Cortisol

  8. 05-212 Limbic HPA Pathway - Stress Cortisol – Over Production Behaviour, depression, diabetes, malnutrition, cardiovascular disease, memory, immune system, drug and alcohol addiction Cortisol – Under Production Chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, immune system (autoimmune disorders) rheumatoid arthritis, allergies, asthma

  9. 05-056 Individual differences in stress reactivity of the adult are determined by maternal behaviour during infancy HIGH LG LOW LG Development of Stress Reactivity Increased Stress Reactivity Increased Risk for Heart Disease, Type II Diabetes, Alcoholism, Affective Disorders, Brain Aging, etc. Modest Stress Reactivity Reduced Risk for Disease M. Szyf

  10. The Fear Response 02-066 Visual Thalamus Visual Cortex Amygdala Scientific American The Hidden Mind, 2002, Volume 12, Number 1

  11. 00-058 Cortisol can be bad for the brain Hippocampus high sterol levels cause loss of dendrites and cell death Frontal brain attention deficits

  12. Evening Cortisol Levels Increase with 00-046 Months of Orphanage Rearing * -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 Log10 Salivary Cortisol -0.8 *linear trendline -1 -1.2 0 10 20 30 40 50 Months of Orphanage Rearing

  13. 05-046 The Founders’ Network Secure Attachment Buffers Cortisol Response to Threatening Events Secure Attachment Insecure Attachment Change in Salivary Cortisol HIGH LOW Fearful Responses to Stimuli Gunnar (1996).

  14. 02-050 Development and Cortisol Levels 1.3 Low SES 1.1 Medium SES High SES Salivary Cortisol (ug/dl) 0.9 0.7 0.5 6 8 10 Age

  15. 05-047 Children in Poorer Quality Childcare Show Rises in Cortisol Over the Day 2.0 1.0 Quality of Childcare 0.0 -1.0 -0.4 -0.2 0.4 0.0 0.2 Rise in Cortisol Dettling (2000).

  16. 05-063 Daycare Quality & Cortisol Levels (Individual Needs) 0.6 Unsatisfactory 0.5 Averaged Cortisol (log10) High Quality Satisfactory 0.4 PM AM Time of Sampling Sims et al. 2005.

  17. 05-064 Daycare Quality & Cortisol Levels (Treat Equitably) 0.6 Unsatisfactory 0.5 Averaged Cortisol (log10) High Quality Satisfactory 0.4 PM AM Time of Sampling Sims et al. 2005.

  18. Cortisol Levels in Romanian Adopted 00-045 Children 6 Years Post Adoption Adopted < 4 months in orphanage 1 Adopted > 8 months 0.8 in orphanage 0.6 Canadian Control 0.4 0.2 0 AM Noon PM

  19. Dr Megan Gunnar • Social Relationships control cortisol levels in infants and young children. • Children with secure attachments to their caregivers show stable cortisol levels. • The key ingredient to buffering stress is sensitive, responsive, individualized care. • It’s not separation from parents, but the experience in child care that triggers their stress responses.

  20. Research on Quality • Treating children with respect • Developing relationships with families • Ensuring programmes focus on children feeling safe “ Hutchins and SIMS 2000

  21. Research on Quality • Meeting the individual needs of children • Ensuring staff remain in their positions long enough to be able to develop and maintain relationships with children “All of these dimensions of quality are fundamental to developing and maintaining strong relationships between caregivers and children “(Hutchins & Sims, 2000).

  22. Perry Preschool Project $17 saved for every $1 invested

  23. 04-012 Summary: Brain Plasticity Sensing pathways – set in early life Vision Hearing Touch HPA Pathway (stress) – set in early life (HPA-Immune Pathway) Hippocampus - Memory Plasticity sustained throughout life Affected by HPA Pathway