Business English CHAPTER TWO, BOOK FIVE
Listening Activities Speaking Activity Writing Activities - Homework 1 2 3 4 Reading Activities 5 Translation Activities - Homework
Warming up 1. Do you like the idea of running your own export business? 2. Why is export a good way to build up a successful business from nothing? 3. Where can businesspeople meet potential international buyers? 4. What is the essential know-how for anyone wanting to be successful in foreign markets?
Listening 1 Exporting is the business of getting the goods or services of domestic producers in front of foreign distributors, retailers or consumers. At the scale required for commercial activity, exporting involves interaction with customs agencies in both the country of import and export, as well as numerous other regulatory and logistical factors that require a significant level of planning and preparation. Thus, on any given workday, an exporter is likely to be participating in one or more operations related to strategizing or carrying out business abroad.
Listening 1 An exporter has all the same responsibilities as a domestic business owner, plus the additional hurdles related specifically to shipping goods or services across international boundaries, often over great distances. Thus, an effective strategy is essential prior to any undertaking in the export business. Products that succeed in the U.S. will probably succeed in countries with comparable cultures, but an exporter will nevertheless spend time identifying his target customers in a foreign company and their specific needs. He must make decisions about how much capital to deploy in acquiring goods for export and what types and number of personnel are needed for an operation, and must devise an overall plan that includes objectives and time frames for completion.
Listening 1 The specific kind of operations activity in which an exporter engages will depend on the kinds of exporting channels she uses. Indirect exporters simply sell their products to domestic buyers who act as intermediaries by turning and selling those products in foreign markets. Others will find foreign buying agents, either domestically or abroad, who can buy in volume and handle distribution or retail. Direct exporting— shipping and marketing domestic products overseas—is the costliest and riskiest kind of exporting, but also the most potentially profitable.
Listening 1 To be a successful direct exporter means to have access to cheap domestic products and reliable transportation, and a good knowledge of the end market. Direct exporters will likely spend a lot of time traveling to find new markets and products, getting to know the culture of their buyers. This kind of exporting is a lifestyle choice, and requires the closest interaction with governmental agencies.
Listening 1 2. Listen to the passage. Then fill in the blanks with the missing words you hear. Exporting is the business of getting the goods or services of _________producers in front of foreign ___________, retailers or consumers. At the scale __________for commercial activity, exporting _________interaction with __________agencies in both the country of import and export, as well as numerous other _________and logistical factors that require a significant _________of planning and preparation. Thus, on any ________workday, an exporter is likely to be participating in one or more operations ________ to strategizing or carrying _____business abroad. distributors domestic required involves customs regulatory level given related out
3. Listen to the passage again and choose the best answer from the choices given. (1) C (2) C (3) D (4) A (5) C
4. Questions and Answers • Please explain the term “exporting”. • Exporting is the business of getting the goods or services of domestic producers in front of foreign distributors, retailers or consumers. At the scale required for commercial activity, exporting involves interaction with customs agencies in both the country of import and export, as well as numerous other regulatory and logistical factors that require a significant level of planning and preparation. • (2) How does an exporter carry out an effective strategy? • An exporter needs to spend time identifying his target customers in a foreign company and their specific needs. He must make decisions about how much capital to deploy in acquiring goods for export and what types and number of personnel are needed for an operation, and must devise an overall plan that includes objectives and time frames for completion.
(3) What are the differences between indirect and direct exporting? The most common methods of exporting are indirect selling and direct selling. In indirect selling, an export intermediary such as an export management company (EMC) or an export trading company (ETC) usually assumes responsibility for finding overseas buyers, shipping products, and getting paid. The principal advantage of indirect exporting for most companies is that it provides a way to penetrate foreign markets without the complexities and risks of direct exporting. Direct selling occurs when the producer deals directly with a foreign buyer. This approach has the advantages of providing more control over the export process, having a potential for higher profits, and allowing a closer relationship to the overseas buyer and marketplace. However, the company must spend more time, personnel, and corporate resources than with indirect exporting.
(4) Why is direct exporting regarded as “a lifestyle choice”? Direct exporters will likely spend a lot of time traveling to find new markets and products, getting to know the culture of their buyers, so this kind of exporting is a lifestyle choice, and requires the closest interaction with governmental agencies.
Listening 2 • 2. Do the exercises to review the vocabulary. • C • (2) B • (3) A • (4) D • (5) A
Listening 2 3. Listen to the dialogue. Then write the words you hear in the correct blank. Joyce: I’d say exporting is too risky. Peter: I don’t think so. Exporting to some markets, such as Canada, is no more risky than selling in the United States. Different international markets have different levels of risks. Almost any ____________ risk can be identified and reduced by using the affordable export assistance now available. Joyce: Well, you have a point there, but getting paid is cumbersome, and I’ll lose my shirt. perceived
Listening 1 Peter: Don’t be such pessimistic. Trade finance and global banking have _________to the point where buying and selling things internationally is routine, safe, and efficient. Reliable payment collection methods are numerous and include letters of credit through banks, credit cards, and online payments. Some delivery firms will even collect payment at the buyer’s backdoor. Commercial payments between countries are predicted to grow by more than 10 percent per year through 2010. Joyce: Oh, yeah, but exporting is just too complicated to me. Peter: Actually, you are 100 percent wrong. Most exporting requires minimal paperwork. Researching markets and finding buyers can, in many instances, be done from your computer using free or low-cost information. Joyce: Well, well. My domestic market is secure, so I don’t need to export. evolved
Listening 1 Peter: This is just so wrong. ____________has made it easier to buy and sell goods in multiple markets. Few markets remain static, and new markets are constantly opening to competition. Most U.S. businesses are involved in or affected by international business, whether they realize it or not. More small- and medium-sized U.S. firms need an international strategy that includes _____________ markets. Joyce: That makes sense. But I’m too small to go global. Peter: No company is too small to go global. In fact, nearly 42 percent of all U.S. exporters in 2005 had fewer than 19 employees. Globalization diversifying
Listening 1 Joyce: Well, what if my product or service probably won’t sell outside the United States? Peter: If your product or service sells well in the United States, there’s a good chance an overseas market can be ____________ for it. What’s more, help is available to test acceptance of your service or product in more than 100 countries around the globe. In some markets, you may have to make some modifications because of cultural or regulatory differences. But by learning how to sell into another market, you will become a better marketer, and your company will be more successful in all markets in which it competes. found
new words 1. incorporate 2. document 3. implementation 4. accumulate 5. knowledgeable 6. outsource 7. incremental 8. endeavor 9. discrepancy 10. pivotal
incorporate = to include something as part of something larger • e.g. We can incorporate some of their approach which will strengthen our areas of weakness. 我们可以采纳他们的某些管理方法,以加强我们的薄弱环节。 • Many of your suggestions have been incorporated in the new plan. 你的很多建议已经被纳入新计划中。 • We had to incorporate for a company for tax reasons. 鉴于税务原因，我们得组成公司。 • The new car design incorporates all the latest safety features. 新的汽车设计具备最新安全措施的一切特点。
2. document = to record the details of an event, a process, etc e.g.: Can you document these claims? 你能为这些要求提供证件吗? This is a badly-/well-documented report, i.e. (not) supporting its statements by referring to evidence 这是一项证据不足[充足]的报告. The results are documented in Chapter 3. 结果记录在第三章。
3. implementation = the processes to take action or make changes that you have officially decided should happen e.g.: The group is responsible for the implementation of the peace plan. 该行动小组的责任是执行和平计划。 They may vary from implementation to implementation. 在不同的工序中它们是各不相同的。 The detailed rules for the implementation of this Law shall be formulated by the department in charge of foreign economic relations and trade under the State Council and reported to the State Council for approval before implementation. 国务院对外经济贸易主管部门根据本法制定实施细则，报国务院批准后施行。
4. accumulate = to collect a large number of things over a long period of time；to gradually increase in number or amount e.g. Dust and dirt soon accumulate if a house is not clean regularly. 房屋不经常打扫，尘土很快就越积越多。 However, as the evidence began to accumulate, experts from the zoo felt obliged to investigate.然而，当证据日趋增多时，该动物园的专家们感到有必要进行调查。 Dust and dirt soon accumulate if a house is not cleaned regularly. 房屋不经常打扫，尘土很快就越积越多。
5. knowledgeable = having or showing knowledge or intelligence e.g.: Do not respect him because he is knowledgeable. 我并非因为他有学问而尊敬他。 He' s very knowledgeable about wines.他对于酒这方面的知识很渊博。 I do not respect him because he is knowledgeable.我并非因为他有学问而尊敬他。
6. outsource = to send out (work, for example) to an outside provider or manufacturer in order to cut costs e.g.: In order to save labor cost, the company has already outsourced this task to a specialized provider. 为了节省人工成本，该公司已经将这项任务外包给一个专业化供应商。 Outsourcing nowadays has become a fashion. 当下外包已经成为一种风尚。 India is a famous Business Process Outsourcing destination. 印度是一个著名的商业流程外包目的地。
7. incremental = to describe something that increases in value or worth, often by a regular amount e.g.: If the cost of money is higher, the cutoff point for the incremental investment is also high. 货币成本高，增加投资的终止点也高。 Mr. Kennedy said that progress on reforms would be incremental. 肯尼迪先生说改革将是渐进的。 Changes at the newspaper are more incremental than radical. 报社的改变是渐进的而不是激进的。
8. endeavor = a conscientious or concerted effort toward an end; an earnest attempt e.g.: People often look their nature ability more important than their endeavor that is wrong absolutely for the success comes from endeavor shall be praised. 人们总是炫耀自己的天赋而努力,这完全错了!因为只有来自努力的成功才值得歌颂. The world can be changed by man's endeavor, and that this endeavor can lead to something new and better. 人经过努力改变世界,这种努力可以使人类达到新的、更美好的境界。 In spite of our best endeavors, it has proven impossible to contact her. 尽管我们千方百计地找她，但就是联系不到她。
9. discrepancy = difference; failure to agree e.g.: II thought I had explained away the discrepancy but he had the actual figure and so I left myself wide open to a charge of telling lies. 我以为我已经有矛盾之处作了辩解，但是他掌握了确凿的数字，因此当他把控我说谎时，我毫无招架之势。 The price tag says$100 and you charged me for$120; how do you explain the discrepancy? 货物标签上写的是一百美元,你向我索价一百二十美元,这个差异该怎么解释？ There is (a) considerable discrepancy/There were many discrepancies between the two versions of the affair. 这件事的两种说法有很大出入
10. pivotal = (written) of great importance because other things depend on it e.g.: The Bank of England has a pivotal role in the London money market. 英格兰银行在伦敦货币市场中发挥着至关重要的作用。 The talks are pivotal to the success of the country. 这些谈话对国家的成败至关重要。 He is a pivotal figure. 他是一个重要人物。
Useful Phrases 1. jump start 2. do well in 3. have sth. in common 4. depend on 5. compare to
jump start = to start a car whose battery has lost power by connecting it to the battery of another car; to help a process or activity to start or become more successful • e.g.: • The EU is trying to jump start the peace process. 欧盟正力图启动和平进程。 • He was huddled with John trying to jump-start his car. 他和约翰一起努力启动汽车。 • Congress hopes the tax cut will jump-start the economy. 议会希望减税能够带来经济复苏。
2. do well in = be successful; prosper e.g.: He would probably do well in the examination only he gets very nervous. 他要不是考试很紧张，成绩可能不错。 Of the 40 students, some do well in study, and the others are playing around. 四十个学生中，有一些功课很好，其余的都很混。 I see Britain did well in the discus. 我看英国队在铁饼项目中表现不错。
3. have sth. in common = shared together e.g.: I have nothing in common with Jane. 我和简毫无共同之处。 In common with many others, she applied for a training place. 她已和许多人一起申请参加训练。 Jane and I have nothing in common. 简和我毫无共同之处。
4. depend on = to need the support, help, or existence of someone or something in order to exist, be healthy, be successful etc.；to trust or have confidence in someone or something e.g.: A lot will depend on how she responds to the challenge. 在很大程度上将取决於她对这一难题的反应。 All living things depend on the sun for their growth. 万物生长靠太阳。 We can depend on his arriving here on time. 我们可以相信他会准时到来。
5. compare sth. to sth. = examine people or things to see how they are alike and how they are different e.g.: When compared to the city, the country looks like the world without its clothes on. 比起城市，乡村看上去好似没有穿上衣服的世界。 When compared to other vehicle, car is really quite convenient. 同其他车辆相比，汽车确实很方便。 Can you tell me how this compares to that? 你能告诉我这个和那个比较起来如何？
Difficult sentences • Becoming a successful trader depends upon the commitment and determination the entire company is willing to give to the endeavor. (Para. 9) • 此句为动名词短语作主语，谓语位depends upon，the entire company is willing to give to the endeavor是定语从句，限定本句的宾语the commitment and determination。
Difficult sentences 2. To successfully solve these challenges requires a firm commitment by management. (Para. 9) 此句是动词不定式做主语，谓语是requires。firm是形容词，修饰commitment by management，意为“坚定的”。
3. It is very unfortunate that many small businesses consider import-export when their business slows in the domestic markets, or when they have excess production capacity to sell to cover their domestic losses. (Para. 10) 此句中的it是形式主语，真正的主语是that引导的从句。在that 引导的从句中，有两个由when 引导的条件状语从句，表示两种情况。
4. The hard sell that may be effective in the domestic market might not produce the same outcome in foreign markets. (Para. 12) 此句中的The hard sell是名词作主语，意为“强行推销”；that may be effective in the domestic market是定语从句，限定the hard sell。
5. In domestic business, your buyer or supplier most likely speaks the same language, has similar culture and does business by the rules that are familiar to you. (Para. 13) 此句有三个谓语部分，分别为speaks，has 和 does；that are familiar to you为定语从句，限定the rules。
Structure 1. Read the article and complete the chart. Planning Commitment Knowledge Relationship
2. Read Paragraphs ,  and , and answer the questions. • What should be included in a well thought-out import-export business plan? • Your import-export business plan should tell where, why, when and how your company will reach its goal. The key sections of your business plan should include an overview of your company, marketing components, financials and an implementation schedule. By adding a cover page, table of contents, mission statement and references you will be well in your way to having a well documented plan.
(2) Who can facilitate import-export companies to prepare necessary documents? Many import-export companies depend on carriers, forwarders, Custom House brokers, bankers and insurance companies to assist them in preparing necessary documents.
(3) In which areas does import-export business differ from domestic business? In domestic business, your buyer or supplier most likely speaks the same language, has similar culture and does business by the rules that are familiar to you. In the international markets, however, your buyer or supplier might be operating in a different legal, political, cultural and economic environment, including different businesses practices and languages.
Vocabulary • 1. • c • (2) e • (3) a • (4) b • (5) i • (6) d • (7) f • (8) g • (9) h 2. (1) A (2) D (3) A (4) A (5) B
Comprehension • 2. • D • C • (3) C • 1. • B • B • (3) C (4) B (5) D (6) D (7) A (8) A (4) D (5) A (9) C (10) A
1. As the reading material emphasizes, success in exporting usually depends on establishing strong relationships with distributors, sales representatives, and other intermediaries in foreign markets. How can exporters meet potential intermediaries?