Parts of Plot • Plot: The sequence of events in a story. • Exposition: The basic situation of a story—this is where the reader learns the background information necessary to understand the story.
Exposition Example The reader learns Liz lives in an apartment by herself. Liz is 25-years-old. Liz is tired from a long day at work as a nurse. Liz is talking on her cell-phone to her best friend Julie as she walks to the door of her own home.
Parts of Plot • Rising Action: The part of the story which occurs between the exposition and climax. Here is where conflicts occur which build up the story and make it interesting.
Rising Action Example Liz hears some strange thumping sounds coming from the inside of her apartment as she is about to put her key in the door. Liz tells Julie she hears something. Julie suggests she calls the police. Liz tells Julie that she was probably imagining the sounds but still hears them.
Parts of Plot • Climax:The turning point or highest point of action in a story. The main conflict is typically resolved after this place. • At the climax the protagonist realizes what has to be done to fix the major conflict of the story and then acts on this decision.
Climax Example Liz opens the door to her apartment and sets her bag by the door. Her heart jumps when she sees a pair of black shoes peeking out from under her living room curtains. The curtain moves slightly.
Climax Example • Liz bravely walks up to the curtain and picks up a heavy candlestick on the way. • She strikes the candlestick against the curtain, and at the same time, something grabs her hand from behind the curtain. • Liz drops the candlestick, and a tall man with a black mask emerges from behind the curtain. • Suddenly, her front door is flung open.
Parts of Plot • Falling Action: The part of the story which occurs after the climax and before the resolution. Here is where loose ends are tied up toward the end of the story.
Falling Action Example The police emerge, and the masked man releases Liz from his grasp. He quickly exits her home through the open window, but is met with the gun from a policeman. Julie had called the police for Liz. Liz realizes many of her possessions are knocked over or broken.
Parts of Plot Resolution: The final outcome of the story.
Resolution Example The police try to comfort Liz while taking her statement. Liz packs some possessions to take to Julie’s house for the night. She decides to invest in a second lock for her door in the morning and to install a burglar system. She knows it will be difficult to continue living in her home.
Parts of Plot Climax Falling Action Rising Action Resolution Basic Situation or Exposition
Flashback • interrupting the sequence of events to include information about an event that happened in the past “When I was a young boy growing up on a farm, I had an experience I will never forget. . .”
Conflict • Internal Conflict:A conflict that occurs within a character’s mind. (man vs. himself) • External Conflict:A conflict that occurs between a character and an outside force. Man vs. man, man vs. nature, for example.
Characterization • Major Characters: The most important characters in a story. • The story revolves around these characters’ lives.\Minor Characters:they interact with the main characters, but the plot does not revolve around them
Characterization • Round Character:A character with many qualities and personality traits. • They sometimes experience a conflict and change as a result. • They seem like real people.
Characterization • Flat Character: A character with only a couple characteristics/ • His or her main purpose is to reveal things about other characters or move the plot along. • For example: a patient on a hospital TV show
Characterization • Dynamic Character:A character who changes throughout the story. They are typically major, round characters.
Characterization • Static Character:A character who does NOT change throughout the story. The Ghost of Christmas Future
Characterization • Protagonist:The main character of a story—often considered to be the hero of the story.
Characterization • Antagonist:The character who frustrates, deceives, or works against the main character.
Character Traits • the characteristics of a character that emerge through narration and dialogue
Methods of Characterization • Direct Characterization: The narrator makes direct comments about the character. i.e. “She adores kittens.” (TELLS)
IndirectCharacterization • We learn about the character through his or her speech, thoughts, feelings, actions, physical appearance and through other characters’ thoughts, feelings, and speech about her. (SHOWS) • All dialogue is indirect
Irony • Situational Irony:When there is a contrast between what a reader or character expects and what actually exists or happens.
Situational Irony Example When John Hinckley attempted to assassinate President Ronald Reagan, all of his shots initially missed the President; however a bullet ricocheted off the bullet-proof windows of the Presidential limousine and struck Reagan in the chest. Thus, the windows made to protect the President from gunfire were partially responsible for his being shot.
Irony Verbal Irony:Saying one thing, but meaning something else. . . knowingly exaggerating. (sarcasm) Example: Teacher: “I can see from the ‘F’ on your paper that you put a lot of effort into your assignment.”
Irony • Dramatic Irony: The audience or reader knows something another character does not know. • Dramatic Irony Example: We, the audience, know that there is a surprise party for Carlos; however, Carlos does not know and is surprised to find a room full of friends when he arrives home.
Narrator • Character who tells the story to the audience • He or she can be a character in the story
Unreliable Narrator • a narrator who is difficult to trust or believe • usually a narrator who is discovered to lie, is delusional, or is mentally ill. • He provides the reader with inaccurate or incomplete information • "It is impossible to say how first the idea entered my brain; but once conceived, it haunted me day and night. . . I think it was his eye! yes, it was this! One of his eyes resembled that of a vulture--a pale blue eye, with a film over it. Whenever it fell upon me, my blood ran cold; and so by degrees--very gradually--I made up my mind to take the life of the old man, and thus rid myself of the eye for ever." • -Edgar Allan Poe, "The Tell-Tale Heart"
Point of View • Who is telling the story? • 1st Person POV: The narrator is a character in the story and uses “I” or “me” when telling the story. • 2nd Person POV: The narrator brings “you”, the reader, into the story when telling the story.
Point of View • 3rd Person Limited POV: The narrator tells only what one character thinks, feels, and observes, and uses “he,” “they,” “she,” etc. • 3rd Person Omniscient POV: The narrator sees into the minds of more than one character when telling the story– uses “he,” “she,” “they,” etc.
Point of View 3rd Person Objective Point of View: the unbiased narrator tells what happens while only revealing the story's action and dialogue. The narrator never tells us what the characters think or feel, remaining a detached observer. 3rd person pronouns are used (he, she, etc.)
Point of View How can the point of view from which the story is told affect the credibility (believability) of the story? Consider: “Rikki Tikki Tavi” is told in 3rd person limited, following Rikki Tikki’s perspective. What if the story was told from Nagaina’s perspective? What would change?
Setting • Setting: Where and when the story takes place. • Place - geographical location. Where is the action of the story taking place? • Time - When is the story taking place? (historical period, time of day, year, etc) • Weather conditions - Is it rainy, sunny, stormy, etc?
Historical Context • the way in which a work of literature is related to the themes and issues of its historical period • Examples: • a story written in the 1880’s will reflect fewer women’s rights • a story set in the early to mid 1800’s may exhibit the horrors of slavery
Imagery • Mental pictures or images created by the author for the reader to show rather than tell the events of the story • Figurative language is often used • Imagery relies on the five senses: • Smell • Taste • Touch • Hear • See
Imagery: SIGHT • The cars crept along like marching ants • Green willows • Wilted roses • The sky looked like the untouched canvas of an artist. • Silver hue of night • Eyes the color of Heaven
Imagery: SMELL • Sweaty clothes • Pungent skin • Dusty odor of dry earth • Aroma of baking apple bread • Rotting leaves • Salty beach air
Imagery: TASTE • Ice-cold strawberries • Tall, frosted glass of lemonade • Pink sweetness of watermelon • Salty chips • The taste of that first defeat was bitter indeed. • Juicy and tart gum
Imagery: TOUCH • Hot, July sun • Soft sand • Sharp briars pulling my hair • Face hot from embarrassment • The lake was left shivering by the touch of morning wind.
Imagery: SOUND • Crackling branches • The eerie silence was shattered by her scream. • Strum of the guitar • He could hear the footsteps of doom nearing. • Ear-piercing sirens
Foreshadowing • The use of hints or clues to indicate events and situations that will occur later in the plot. • Spooky music • Thunder and lightening • A new suspicious character introduced (purpose unknown at the time)
Foreshadowing Example • The general smiled the quiet smile of one who has faced an obstacle and surmounted it with success. “I had to invent a new animal to hunt.” • From “The Most Dangerous Game”
Suspense • The excitement or tension a reader feels when reading. • I wonder what will happen next?
Suspense Example • Rainsford expressed his surprise. “Is there big game on this island?” • The general nodded. “The biggest.” • “Oh, it isn’t here naturally, of course. I have to stock the island.” • From “The Most Dangerous Game”
Mood • Mood is the emotions that you feel while you are reading. Some literature makes you feel sad, others joyful, still others, angry. • The general atmosphere created by the author’s words and imagery. • Types of mood: scary, romantic, violent, hopeful, mysterious, joyful. . .