English For Specific Purpose By: Ameera M.Abdullah M.A Student in Applied Linguistics 14th of Jan. 2012
The main aim of the English for Specific Purpose: - to prepare students for study in a particular discipline.
Key questions for teachers before designing ESP • How can teachers develop a new course? • - Where should they start? • What can be done about students' motivation? • - How should teaching materials be selected?
Steps in designing anew ESP course • Students analysis • Formulation of Goals and Objectives of the Course • Conceptualizing the Content • Selecting and Developing ESP Materials • Course Planning • Evaluating the Course
1- Need Analysis • What do students need to do with English? • Which of the skills do they need to master and how well? • Which kinds do they need to master either for comprehension or production purposes?
1- Need Analysis • Need analysis is a key feature of ESP course design. • It should be motivating for learners.. • the task of the ESP course developer is to identify the needs of the learner and design a course around them. • students in ESP classes often have restricted time to learn English so it makes sense to teach them only the bits of English they need. • the task of the ESP course developer is to identify the needs of the learner and design a course around them.
How we can find information about student’s needs? questionnaires, surveys group discussions individual talks
2. Formulation of Goals and Objectives of the Course: K. Graves (1996) explains, - Goals are general statements or the final destination, the level students will need to achieve. -Objectives express certain ways of achieving the goals.
3- Conceptualizing the Content: There are different ways of conceptualizing the content that teachers can focus on developing: - basic skills - communicative competence - intercultural competence - vocabulary awareness
4- Selecting and Developing ESP Materials: - K. Graves points out teaching materials are "tools that can be figuratively cut up into component pieces and then rearranged to suite the needs, abilities, and interests of the students in the course” (Graves K., 1996: 27).
5. Course Planning • Teachers should be flexible in course planning, that they be ready adjust the syllabus and make slight changes in the course while teaching, so that they can best address students interests and needs.
6. Evaluating the Course Implicit evaluation takes place during the semester, when learners, by their grades, participation, and motivation, give clues to the teacher on how their learning is going on. Explicit evaluation may take place at the end of the course or after students have experienced it. Using questionnaires, surveys, talks, etc.
The role of the ESP learner: • - Interest and motivation for learning. • - Subject –content knowledge. • -Focus on learning strategies.
After talking with the students of General Science in College of Basic Education about their reflection of the syllabus, we saw them so satisfied from the arrangement of the content for there is grammar, conversation and glossary of terminologies which lead them to: • - communicate effectively. • - learn independently. • - work in teams, and manage multidisciplinary projects.
Conclusion 1- ESP, like any form of language teaching is primarily Concerned with learning. It focused on what people learn. 2-We can say that ESP prepares learners to use English within academic, professional, or workplace environments. 3- Three kinds of ESP can be referred to: occupational requirements, Vocational training programs and Academic study. 4- A communicative approach should be based on a real analysis of students’ needs and expectations, on a real analysis of the ESP learning situation, and on real negotiation with the students.