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  1. Determining the Specific Purpose Informative Speeches Barry 2010

  2. Determining the Specific Purpose • Needs to be sufficiently narrow to cover in the time allotted • Your speech will be four to eight minutes long! • States your precise goal for the speech • State in a single infinitive phrase: • To inform my audience about . . . From The Art of Public Speaking by Stephen E. Lucas

  3. Example Specific Purposes • To inform my audience about the benefits of music therapy for people with psychological or cognitive disabilities. • Notice that the phrase includes “my audience.” • Keep your audience in mind! From The Art of Public Speaking by Stephen E. Lucas

  4. Example Specific Purposes • Ineffective: • Calendars • Effective: • To inform my audience about the four major kinds of calendars used in the world today From The Art of Public Speaking by Stephen E. Lucas

  5. Example Specific Purposes • Ineffective: • What is Día de los Muertos? • Effective: • To inform my audience about the history of Mexico’s Día de los Muertos celebration From The Art of Public Speaking by Stephen E. Lucas

  6. Example Specific Purposes • Ineffective: • To inform my audience about the benefits of volunteering in the Special Olympics and the history of the Special Olympics • Effective: • To inform my audience about the history of the Special Olympics From The Art of Public Speaking by Stephen E. Lucas

  7. Example Specific Purposes • Ineffective: • To inform my audience about hot-air balloons • Effective: • To inform my audience about the scientific uses of hot-air balloons From The Art of Public Speaking by Stephen E. Lucas

  8. Example Specific Purposes • Ineffective: (Too broad to cover in the time allotted) • To inform my audience about the rise and fall of ancient Rome • To inform my audience about the role of technology in human history From The Art of Public Speaking by Stephen E. Lucas

  9. Specific Purpose Checklist (on handout) • Full infinitive phrase • Refers to audience/is suitable to audience • Statement, not question • Limited to one distinct subject • Indicates precise goal • Can be accomplished in the time allotted (4 to 8 minutes) From The Art of Public Speaking by Stephen E. Lucas

  10. Cautions for Informative Speeches • Don’t choose a trivial speech topic; choose something that has some depth to it. • Also, try to choose something that most audience members will learn from • Examples of trivial purpose statements: • To inform my audience how to make a peanut butter and jelly sandwich • To inform my audience how to tie a bow tie From The Art of Public Speaking by Stephen E. Lucas

  11. Cautions for Informative Speeches • Don’t choose an overly technical speech topic • Make sure you can make your topic understandable, and avoid jargon • Example of an overly technical purpose statements: • To inform my audience about the methods of encryption technology From The Art of Public Speaking by Stephen E. Lucas

  12. Cautions for Informative Speeches • Don’t overestimate what the audience knows. • Give sufficient background in your speech • For example, if you give a speech on Roth IRAs, define them first From The Art of Public Speaking by Stephen E. Lucas

  13. Cautions for Informative Speeches • Relate the subject directly to the audience. • Find ways to talk about your topic in terms of your listeners. • Use the pronoun “you.” • It is your job to keep your audience interested! From The Art of Public Speaking by Stephen E. Lucas

  14. Cautions for Informative Speeches • Relate the subject directly to the audience. • Compare these examples: • I want to talk to you about chili peppers. • Imagine your mouth is burning like wildfire, your eyes squirting out uncontrollable tears, and your face red and sweating profusely. Are you sick? No. You just took a bite out of a screaming hot chili pepper. From The Art of Public Speaking by Stephen E. Lucas

  15. Cautions for Informative Speeches • Avoid abstractions. • Use description: statements that depict a person, event, or idea with clarity and vividness • Use comparisons: statements of the similarities among two or more people, events, ideas, etc. • Use contrasts: statements of the differences among two or more people, events, ideas, etc. From The Art of Public Speaking by Stephen E. Lucas

  16. Cautions for Informative Speeches • Personalize your ideas. • personalize: to present one’s ideas in human terms that relate in some fashion to the experience of the audience. • Entertain your audience as you enlighten them. From The Art of Public Speaking by Stephen E. Lucas