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Nutrient Exchange

Nutrient Exchange

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Nutrient Exchange

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  1. Nutrient Exchange How Plants and Animals use Nutrients

  2. Four Macromolecules 1. Nucleic Acids –Monomer: nucleotides Eg. DNA and RNA 2. Proteins –Monomer: amino acids (20 different) Eg. Insulin, keratin (hair) 

  3. Four Macromolecules 3. Carbohydrates (sugars) –Monomer: simple sugars, glucose Eg. The energy sources of life. 4. Lipids (fats) – Also called fatty acids, Monomer: glycerol and fatty acids Eg. Build all membranes (cellular and organelle) and some hormones. Storage of energy.

  4. Nucleic Acids • Monomer = nucleotide • Three parts of a nucleotide: base, sugar, phosphate • Structure: Sugar Base Phosphate

  5. III. Proteins • Monomer: • 20 Amino Acids • Structure i. Typical Amino Acid (Draw this above)

  6. Peptide Bonds ii. In a peptide bond we join a carboxyl group (-COOH) to an amino group (-NH2) The bond joining two amino acids

  7. Draw a peptide bond between two glycines in the space to the right

  8. iii. Sample Protein – InsulinThe protein that regulates our sugar uptake

  9. Video of insulin

  10. CH2OH C O H H H H ii. FructoseFruit sugar C C OH C C OH OH OH H CH2OH HOCH2 O OH C C C C OH H OH IV. Carbohydrates a. Monomer – i. GlucoseBlood sugar

  11. b. Dehydration Synthesis Animation

  12. CH2OH CH2OH CH2OH CH2OH O O O O etc. etc. OH OH OH OH O O O O O OH OH OH OH c. Polysaccharides a.  Formed by more than two simple sugars joined together. i. Starch (1000 glucoses hooked)Plant energy storage

  13. Plant starch…stained with iodine

  14. Polysaccharides con’t: ii. Glycogen (30 glucoses hooked)Stored sugar, found in animal liver.

  15. Carbon Hydrogen Ratios a.  Looking at the molecular formulas for the different saccharides what is the ratio of H’s to O’s? Hint: it is the same in each molecule: Glucose:C6H12O6Maltose C12H24O12 _____ H’s to each _____ O This is true for any saccharide 2 1

  16. V. Fats (Lipids) • Monomers: i. Fatty Acids ii. + Glycerol + 3 fatty acids

  17. H H H H H H H H H C C C C C C C C H H H H H H H H O C OH Fats con’t: b. Look at the fatty acids on the front page. Square the hydrocarbons(“CH” tails) in red, circle the acid portion (-OH containing) in green.

  18. Membranes are lipids c. Have you seen the structure before? Fatty acids are one of the primary building blocks of cell and organelle membranes.

  19. Fats con’t: In animals what is one other membrane component (hint we just studied it last unit)? Cholesterol

  20. Glycerol/FAs Nucleotides Glucose Amino Acids Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Molecule Review

  21. CH2OH CH2OH CH2OH CH2OH O O O O • etc. • etc. OH OH OH OH O O O O O OH OH OH OH CH2OH HOCH2 O OH C C C C OH H OH MiniQUIZIdentify each as a nucleic acid, carbohydrate, fat, or protein 2 1 3 4

  22. Obtaining Nutrients Lecture A. Autotrophs--Convert light energy to chemical energy using photosynthesis… • a.  Are also called Producers • b.  Examples –Green Plants • c. Autotrophs need – • CO2, H2O, light, heat, minerals.

  23. B - Heterotrophs a.  Are also called Consumers b. Examples – Bacteria, protozoa, fungi, animals (humans) c.  Heterotrophs need: Autotrophs, O2, minerals, vitamins, H2O

  24. Light Photosynthesis a.  Photosynthesis uses light energy to construct simple sugars. 6 CO2 + 6 H2O 6 O2 + C6H12O6 The requirements for photosynthesis: Light, heat, chlorophyll, carbon dioxide, water OCCURS IN THE _________________________ of PLANTS chlorophyll CHLOROPLASTS

  25. Cellular Respiration   i.      The process in the Mitochondria where simple sugars are “burned” to produce energy (in the form of ATP). Simple formula of Cellular Respiration: C6H12O6+ 6 O2 6 H2O + 6 CO2 ADP and P ATP = ENERGY! Enzymes

  26. Mitochondria • Supply all of the usable energy for • Plants (autotrophs) and Animals (heterotrophs) WOW!

  27. H O C C H OH N H H O CH3 H N O O O OH P O N CH2 O C C OH C C OH OH Mini QUIZ Name these Molecules (fat, carb, protein, N.A.) • 2) 3) 4) Write the complete Equation for Cellular Respiration

  28. Leaf Structure--How Autotrophs capture nutrients • Leaf Cross-section

  29. a.  Cuticle Thin, waxy layer on outer surface b.  Epidermis Outermost layer of cells c.  Palisade Layer – Tall cells in mesophyll, contain chloroplasts.

  30. e.  Spongy Layerloosely arranged layer of cells with space for gas, where lots of photosynthesis takes place. d.  Stomata – small opening in the epidermis for gas exchange. f.  Guard Cells – cells making up the stomata, can open or close.

  31. g. Vein – vascular tubes in leaf.        i.      Xylem – carries H2O, minerals, hormones.      ii.      Phloem – carries nutrients (sucrose), O2, hormones.

  32. h.  Chloroplasts – Organelle containing enzymes and chlorophyll Chlorophyll – pigment that enables light energy to be changed into chemical energy (sugars)

  33. Leaf Parts MINI QUIZ Label These Leaf Parts 1. Upper Epidermis 2. Palisade Layer 3. Spongy Layer 4. Cuticle 6. Guard Cell 5. Vein

  34. Digestive System LectureHow A Heterotroph captures nutrients

  35. Salivary Glands Tongue Trachea Esophagus Gall Bladder Liver Stomach Bile Duct Duodenum Pancreas Pancreatic Duct Large Intestine Small Intestine Small Intestine Appendix Small Intestine Rectum Anus

  36. A. Salivary Glands a. Mucus – lubricates food. b. Amylase – begins to break down carbohydrate

  37. B. Tongue a. Keeps food between teeth b. Taste Buds – 4 areas c. Pushes food to esophagus

  38. C. Trachea a. Windpipe b. Epiglottis prevents “breathing” food

  39. D. Esophagus Tube to stomach Peristalsis starts, Rhythmic squeezing of food through tubes.

  40. E. Liver a. Bile is produced b. Emulsifies fats. c. Center for metabolism. d. Detoxifies blood e. Bile sent to Sm. Intestine f. Store glycogen (starch) Vital Organ

  41. F. Gall Bladder • Stores bile (bile emulsifies fats)

  42. G. Stomach a. Churn, mix food b. Sphincters, control openings c. Protein digestion d. The Hormone Gastrin – stimulates release of gastric juices e. Gastric juices: HCl, pepsin, etc. f. VOMIT! • Reverse peristalsis Gizzard = ?

  43. Gizzards

  44. “Heartburn”

  45. H. Bile Duct • Tube to Sm. Intestine from Gall Bladder

  46. I. Duodenum • Most Digestion • First ~1ft of the Small Intestine

  47. J. Pancreas a. Produces Insulin, and other digestive enzymes… Regulates sugar uptake from blood. b. If DIABETIC insulin is not made.