LUMEN GENTIUM The Dogmatic Constitution on the Church Lumen Gentium
The Teaching Constitutions The Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy (Sacrosanctum concilium) Dogmatic Constitution on the Church (Lumen Gentium) Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation (Dei verbum) Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World (Gaudium et spes)
The Teaching Decrees Decree on the Means of Social Communication (Inter mirifica) Decree on the Catholic Eastern Churches (Orientalium Ecclesiarum) Decree on Ecumenism (Unitatis redintegratio) Decree on the Pastoral Office of Bishops in the Church (Christus Dominus) Decree on the Up-to-Date Renewal of Religious Life (Perfectae caritatis)
The Teaching Decrees Decree on the Training of Priests (Optatam totius) Decree on the Apostolate of Lay People (Apostolicam actuositatem) Decree on the Church’s Missionary Activity (Ad gentes divinitus) Decree on the Ministry and Life of Priests (Presbyterorum ordinis)
The Council The Four Sessions • First Session • 11 October - 8 December 1962 • Second Session • 29 September - 4 December 1963 • Third Session • 14 September - 21 November 1964 • Fourth Session • 14 September - 8 December 1965
PRE-HISTORY • Counter-Reformation • First Vatican Council • Reception by Second Vatican Council Lumen Gentium
COUNTER-REFORMATION St Robert Bellarmine (1542-1621) The Church is “an assembly of persons united by the profession of the same faith and communion in the same sacraments under the governance of legitimate pastors and especially of the one vicar of Christ on earth, the Roman pontiff.” Lumen Gentium
FIRST VATICAN COUNCIL • Pastor Aeternis • affirming papal primacy in teaching and governance(juridical) • papal infallibility in teaching • hierarchical structure of the church Lumen Gentium
PASTOR AETERNIS So, then, if anyone says that the Roman pontiff has merely an office of supervision and guidance, and not the full and supreme power of jurisdiction over the whole church, and this not only in matters of faith and morals, but also in those which concern the discipline and government of the church dispersed throughout the whole world; or that he has only the principal part, but not the absolute fullness, of this supreme power; or that this power of his is not ordinary and immediate both over all and each of the churches and over all and each of the pastors and faithful: let him be anathema.
PASTOR AETERNIS Therefore, ... we teach and define as a divinely revealed dogma that when the Roman pontiff speaks ex cathedra, that is, when, in the exercise of his office as shepherd and teacher of all Christians, in virtue of his supreme apostolic authority, he defines a doctrine concerning faith or morals to be held by the whole church, he possesses, by the divine assistance promised to him in blessed Peter, that infallibility which the divine Redeemer willed his church to enjoy in defining doctrine concerning faith or morals. Therefore, such definitions are of themselves, and not by the consent of the church, irreformable.
PASTOR AETERNIS “the power of the supreme pontiff by no means detracts from that ordinary and immediate power of episcopal jurisdiction, by which bishops, who have succeeded to the place of the apostles by appointment of the Holy Spirit, tend and govern individually the particular flocks which have been assigned to them.”
GALLICANISM/JOSEPHISM ULTRAMONTANISM Lumen Gentium
TÜBINGEN SCHOOL Johann Adam Möhler (+1838) By the Church on earth, Catholics understand the visible community of believers, founded by Christ, in which, by means of an enduring apostleship, established by him, and appointed to conduct all nations, in the course of ages, back to God, the works wrought by him during his earthly life, for the redemption and sanctification of mankind, are, under the guidance of his Spirit, continued to the end of the world. Lumen Gentium
PRE-HISTORY MysticiCorporis, Pius XII’s encyclical on Mystical Body (1943) Lumen Gentium
MYSTICI CORPORIS(The Mystical Body) • Acceptance of theological developments of previous century • Church is more than visible institution • Pauline image of the Body of Christ • Church defined by relationship with Christ • Visible and mystical • Visible Body is the Roman Catholic Church • Christ is Head of the Church • Holy Spirit is its soul • All are parts of Christ’s Body/members of the Church
SOURCES OF RENEWED UNDERSTANDING • ressourcement by biblical and historical scholars • biblical images of church • patristic sources • rediscovering the church of the first millennium Lumen Gentium
CATHOLIC THEOLOGIANS • Karl Rahnersj • Edward Schillibeeckx op • Henri de Lubacsj • Hans Küng • Yves Congar op • Marie-Dominique Chenu op Lumen Gentium
SACROSANCTUM CONCILIUM (1963) Therefore all should hold in great esteem the liturgical life of the diocese centered around the bishop, especially in his cathedral church; they must be convinced that the pre-eminent manifestation of the Church consists in the full active participation of all God’s holy people in these liturgical celebrations, especially in the same eucharist, in a single prayer, at one altar, at which there presides the bishop surrounded by his college of priests and by his ministers. (SC, 41) Lumen Gentium
FIRST DRAFT, DE ECCLESIA (First Session) • The nature of the Church militant. • The members of the Church and the necessity of the Church for salvation. • The episcopate as the highest grade of the sacrament of orders; the priesthood. • Residential bishops. • The state of evangelical perfection. • The laity. Lumen Gentium
FIRST DRAFT, DE ECCLESIA (First Session) • The teaching office of the Church. • Authority and obedience in the Church. • Relationships between Church and state and religious tolerance. • The necessity of proclaiming the gospel to all peoples and in the whole world. • Ecumenism. • Appendix: Virgin Mary, Mother of God and Mother of Men (sic). Lumen Gentium
BISHOP EMILE DE SMEDT OF BRUGES: • Critique of De Ecclesia: • “triumphalsim” • “clericalism” • “juridicism” Lumen Gentium
CARDINAL LÈON-JOSEPH SUENENS: • Church ad intra • Church ad extra - became Gaudium et Spes Lumen Gentium
SECOND DRAFT, DE ECCLESIA (Second Session) • The mystery of the Church. • The hierarchical constitution of the Church and the episcopate in particular. • The People of God and the laity in particular. • The call to holiness in the Church. Lumen Gentium
DEBATES (Second Session) Chapter 2 – collegiality Chapter 3 – to be placed before Chapter 2 Separate schema: “The Blessed Virgin, Mother of the Church” • Cardinal König v. Cardinal Santos • Final vote: 1114 to 1074 Lumen Gentium
SECOND SESSION October 30 – Votes on Specific Matters: Should the schema assert that episcopal consecration is the supreme grade of the sacrament of Orders? 2,123 affirmative, 34 negative. Should the schema assert that every legitimately consecrated bishop in communion with the other bishops and the Roman Pontiff is a member of the Body of Bishops? 2,154 affirmative, 104 negative.
SECOND SESSION October 30 – Votes on Specific Matters: Should the schema assert that the so-called Body or College of Bishops in its evangelising, sanctifying and governing task is successor to the original College of the Apostles and, always in communion with the Roman Pontiff, enjoys full and supreme power over the universal church? 2,148 affirmative, 336 negative. Lumen Gentium
SECOND SESSION October 30 – Votes on Specific Matters: Should the schema assert that the aforementioned power of the College of Bishops, united with their head, belongs to it by divine ordinance (and therefore not by papal delegation)? 2,138 affirmative, 408 negative.
SECOND SESSION October 30 – Votes on Specific Matters: Should the schema assert that it is opportune to consider the reinstatement of the diaconate as a permanent grade of sacred ministry, according to needs in different parts of the church? 2,120 affirmative, 525 negative.
THIRD DRAFT (Third Session) • Intense debate concerning collegiality • Preliminary Explanatory Note (nota explicativapraevia) added on Nov. 16, 1964, approved by Pope Paul VI • Final vote: 2151 to 4 Lumen Gentium
FINAL DRAFT (Third Session) Chapter I: The Mystery of the Church (Nos. 1-8)Chapter II: The People of God (Nos. 9-17)Chapter III: On the Hierarchical Structure of the Church and in particular on the Episcopate (Nos. 18-29)Chapter IV: The Laity (Nos. 30-38)Chapter V: The Universal Vocation to Holiness in the Church (Nos. 39-42)Chapter VI: Religious (Nos. 43-47)Chapter VII: The Eschatological Nature of the Pilgrim Church and its Union with the Church in Heaven (Nos. 48-51)Chapter VIII: The Blessed Virgin Mary, Mother of God, in the Mystery of Christ and the Church (Nos. 52-69)
CHRIST AND MISSION No. 1 Christ is the Light of nations (lumen gentium). Because this is so, this Sacred Synod gathered together in the Holy Spirit eagerly desires, by proclaiming the Gospel to every creature (cf. Mk. 16, 15) to bring the light of Christ to all men, a light brightly visible on the countenance of the Church.
CHURCH AS SACRAMENT No. 1 Since the Church is in Christ like a sacrament or as a sign and instrument both of a very closely knit union with God and of the unity of the whole human race, it desires now to unfold more fully to the faithful of the Church and to the whole world its own inner nature and universal mission. Lumen Gentium
CHURCH AS: • Body of Christ People of God Communion etc.
CHRIST, THE HOLY SPIRIT AND THE CHURCH No. 8 But the society structured with a hierarchical system and the Mystical Body of Christ, are not to be considered as two realities, nor are the visible assembly and the spiritual community, nor the earthly Church and the Church enriched with heavenly gifts; rather they form one complex reality which is composed of a divine and a human element.
CHRIST, THE HOLY SPIRIT AND THE CHURCH No. 8 For this reason, by a striking analogy, it is compared to the mystery of the incarnate Word. As the assumed nature inseparably united to the divine Word, serves him as the living organ of salvation, so, in a similar way, does the visible social structure of the Church serve the Spirit of Christ, who vivifies her, in the building up of the body (cf. Eph. 4, 16).
THE CHURCH AND REFORM No. 8The Church, embracing sinners with herself, at the same time holy and always in need of being purified, ceaselessly follows the way of penance and renewal.
THE CHURCH OF CHRIST AND THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH No. 8The Church, constituted and organized in the world as a society, subsists in the Catholic Church, which is governed by Peter’s successor and the bishops in communion with him, although many elements of sanctification and truth are found outside its visible structure. These elements, as gifts belonging to the Church of Christ, are forces impelling toward universal unity.
COMMON AND MINISTERIAL PRIESTHOOD No. 10Though they differ essentially from one another and not only in degree, the common priesthood of the faithful and the ministerial or hierarchical priesthood are nonetheless inter-related; each of them in its own special way is a sharing in the one priesthood of Christ.
EASTERN CHURCHES No. 13Within the Church particular Churches (Eastern Catholic churches) hold a rightful place; these Churches retain their own traditions, without in any way opposing the primacy of the Chair of Peter, which presides over the whole assembly of charity and protects legitimate differences, while at the same time assuring that such differences do not hinder unity but rather contribute toward it. (LG13)
THE CHURCH AND OTHER CHRISTIANS No. 15The Church recognises that she is linked in many ways with those who, being baptised, are honoured with the name of christian, but do not profess the faith in its entirety or preserve unity of communion with the successor of Peter.
THE CHURCH AND THE JEWS No. 16Finally, those who have not yet received the gospel are related in various ways to the People of God. In the first place we must recall the people to whom the testament and promises were given, and from whom Christ was born according the flesh (cf. Rom. 9, 4-5). On account of their fathers this chosen people remains most dear to God, for God does not repent of the gifts he makes nor of the calls he issues (cf. Rom. 11, 28-29).
THE CHURCH AND MUSLIMS No. 16But the plan of salvation also includes those who acknowledge the Creator. Among whom in the first place are Moslems: professing that they hold the faith of Abraham, they adore with us the one and merciful God, who on thelast day will judgemankind.
THE CHURCH AND OTHER RELIGIONS No. 16Nor from those who in shadows and images seek the unknown God is God far distant, for it is he who gives all men life, breath and all things (cf. Acts 17, 25-28), and as Saviour wills that all men be saved (cf. 1 Tim. 2, 4). For those also can attain to salvation who through no fault of their own do not know the gospel of Christ or his Church, yet sincerely seek God, and moved by grace strive by their deeds to do his will as it is known to them through the promptings of conscience.
THE BISHOP No. 21And the Sacred Council teaches that by episcopal consecration the fullness of the sacrament of order is conferred, .....But episcopal consecration, together with the office of sanctifying, also confers the offices of teaching and governing, which, however, by their very nature, can be exercised only in hierarchical communion with the head and members of the College.
COLLEGE OFBISHOPS No. 22Just as – the Lord so disposing – St Peter and the other apostles constitute one apostolic College, so the Roman Pontiff, the successor of Peter, and the bishops, the successors of the apostles, are united with one another.
PRELIMINARY NOTE OF POPE PAUL VI College always includes its head. In College, Pope remains Pastor of Universal Church. Distinction is not Pope or College but Pope or Pope + Bishops As Pope he alone has certain competencies. The Pope arranges, promotes and approves the exercise of collegial activity. As Supreme Pastor, the Pope can always exercise his power at will. …….. Lumen Gentium
COLLEGE AND POPE No. 22But the College or body of bishops has no authority unless it includes the Roman Pontiff, the successor of Peter, as its head. His power of primacy over all, both pastors and faithful, remains whole and entire. In virtue of his office, as vicar of Christ and pastor of the whole Church, the Roman Pontiff has full, supreme and universal power: which he is always free to exercise.
COLLEGE OF BISHOPS No. 22Together with its head the Roman Pontiff and never without this head, the order of bishops which succeeds to the college of apostles in teaching and ruling the Church, and give this apostolic body continued existence, is also the subject of supreme and full power over the universal Church. This power can be exercised only with the consent of the Roman Pontiff.
No. 22This College, insofar as it is composed of many, expresses the variety and universality of the People of God, but insofar as it is assembled under one head, it expresses the unity of the flock of Christ ..... COLLEGIALITY
COLLEGIALITY No. 22 • National Episcopal Conferences • Synod of Bishops • Regional Councils • continent or cultural group • called by Rome