Teacher wants to break away. What might be the benefits of his classroom breaking away? What might be the negative affects of the classroom breaking away? How might other schools look at us if this happens?. Compromises and Events that Led to the Civil War. Missouri Compromise-1820.
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Teacher wants to break away. • What might be the benefits of his classroom breaking away? • What might be the negative affects of the classroom breaking away? • How might other schools look at us if this happens?
Missouri Compromise-1820 • The U.S. purchased Louisiana in 1803. Congress had to decide if states being made from this territory would be free or slave. • Missouri applied to become a slave state. Maine wanted to come in as a free state. This would keep the balance between slave and free in Congress. • To avoid future arguments, Henry Clay wrote a compromise that said that any territory that became a state would be slave or free depending on where it was on the map. • Any territory below the 36x30 line on the map would be a slave state, any territory above that line would be a free state.
On the section MISSOURI COMPROMISE Write: • Maine is admitted to the United States as a Free State • Missouri is admitted to the United States as a Slave State • Now 12 free and 12 slave • Compromise draws an invisible line through the U.S. at the 36x30 line=above the Arkansas territory. • Every new state South of that line would be slave. Every new state North of that line would be free. Only Missouri would be above the line. • To make the Southern states happy, Congress added that slaves that had escaped to the North could be brought back if they were caught-even from non-slave states.
Check for understanding • Quick Question: What was the purpose and result of the Missouri Compromise • ***Write a response in one minute**
Compromise of 1850 • The annexation of Texas and the gaining of the Mexican Cession land made the U.S. re-examine the issue of slavery. They had to decide if new states would be slave or free. • When California asked to become a free state in 1849 people began arguing. The 36x30 line cut right thru the middle of California.
Henry Clay came out of retirement to help write the Compromise of 1850 • When it passed people believed this would finally solve the problem of what to do about slavery.
On the section COMPROMISE OF 1850 write: California would be admitted as a free state. All other territories could decide when they applied for statehood if they wanted to be slave or free=Popular Sovereignty The slave trade would be outlawed in D.C. This compromise included the Fugitive Slave Act=it was now a CRIME to help runaway slaves even in the North. This made many people in the North very angry. Texas agreed to give up its claims to New Mexico for $10 million. This let Texas pay off her debt and gave us our present day borders.
Check for understanding • Quick question: • How does the Compromise of 1850 differ from the Missouri Compromise?
Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854 • By the 1850s the area above Texas was ready to be recognized as a territory in preparation to becoming a state. • It was North of the 36x30 line. The Compromise of 1850 had stated that these territories could decide for themselves if they were going to be free or slave. • In 1854 Congress passed a bill creating 2 territories=Kansas and Nebraska. It was hoped by many that one would be free and one would be slave. However, the decision was left up to the people in those territories=Popular Sovereignty. • People from surrounding states flooded into these territories to swing the vote the way they wanted it to go. Many people were killed over the issue.
On the section KANSAS-NEBRASKA ACT write: • Nebraska was divided in half so there are 2 territories. • Kansas and Nebraska. • Slavery in each territory would be decided by the voters=Popular Sovereignty. • Results: • Bleeding Kansas-lots of violence • The Democratic Party lost support in the North but gained it in the South. Democrats were pro-slavery. • The Republican Party is created and it gained power among those against slavery.
Check for understanding • Quick question: • What results came from the Kansas-Nebraska Act?
Your task • Put yourself in the shoes of either a Northern Citizen, Southern plantation owner, a slave, or a former slave and write a letter complaining or liking one of the compromises • Dear Mr. President (or Mom, Dad, whoever), • I am a _____________ in the (north/south, state) and I feel that the _____________ is ______. • Identify who you are and where you live • Which compromise are you writing about • ½ pg in length
Dred Scott Decision 1857 • Dred Scott was an African American slave who belonged to an Army officer. • He traveled with his owner and lived in 2 free states for several years. • At one point he even traveled alone through free territories to join his master in the South. • He never sued for his freedom while his master was alive. However, shortly after the Army officer died, his widow hired Scott out to someone else. At this point, Scott tried to buy his freedom. He was denied.
Abolitionist lawyers took his case and helped him sue for his freedom on the grounds that he had lived in 2 free states and should have been given his freedom. • His case was in the courts for 10 years. Some found in his favor, others found against him. • He decided to appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court in 1856. • Of the 9 Supreme Court justices 7 had been appointed by pro-slavery, Southern presidents and 5 were from slave holding families.
The Supreme Court ruled that because Scott was black he was not a citizen of the United States and therefore he had no right to sue. • The justices also declared that the Missouri Compromise and its attempt to restrict slavery in territories North of the 36x30 line was unconstitutional. • Northerners were furious and this decision had a huge impact on the 1860 election of the Republican nominee=Abraham Lincoln. • The sons of the man who had owned Dred Scott had paid his legal fees for years trying to help him win his freedom. After the Supreme Court decision, they bought Scott and his wife from the widow and set him free. Scott died 9 months later a free man.
On the section DRED SCOTT DECISION write: • The Supreme Court of 1857 ruled that people of African ancestry were not citizens and could not sue in Federal Court for freedom or anything else. • They also ruled that the Missouri Compromise was not legal. They stated the government can not tell states they have to be slave or free. • Results: • Angry anti-slavery voters voted for Abraham Lincoln for president in 1860.
Check for understanding • In your own words, summarize the Dred Scott Decision. • You have one minute.
Write in the section Presidential Election of 1860 • 1860-Republican Abraham Lincoln won the Presidency. • Republicans promised to: • End the spread of slavery • Impose tariffs to protect US businesses • Give free land in the West to settlers
1860PresidentialElection √Abraham LincolnRepublican John BellConstitutional Union Stephen A. DouglasNorthern Democrat John C. BreckinridgeSouthern Democrat
Check for understanding • How do you think the South will react with this election result? Why? • You have one minute to write a response.
In the South: • There were no votes for Lincoln-they feared he would end slavery • Southern states started seceding-leaving the United States • South Carolina secedes first, and is followed by many more states. • They form the Confederate States of America=Confederacy
Your task today.. • Create a Newspaper Article Headline with a picture on it. Your topic can be • Any of the compromises • You can take the side of the North or South when creating this. • Take your time on this!!! Do a good job!