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Chapter 8
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Chapter 8

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  1. Chapter 8 Understanding and Installing Hard Drives

  2. You Will Learn… • About hard drive technologies • How a computer communicates with hard drive firmware • How a hard drive is logically organized to hold data • How to install a hard drive • How to solve hard drive installation problems A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  3. Hard Drive Technologies • Used by hard drive to interface with the system • Used within hard drive to read and write data to the drive A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  4. Hard Drive Subsystem A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  5. Types of Hard Drive Interfaces • EIDE (Enhanced IDE) interface standards used by most hard drives • Other interface standards A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  6. EIDE Interface Standards • Specify data transfer speed more than any other factor • Considerations when selecting a standard • Use fastest standard appropriate for range of the system and size of the drive • Must be supported by the OS, system BIOS on motherboard, and firmware on the drive • Ultra ATA/100: most popular A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  7. ANSI Interface Standards A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  8. EIDE Interface Standards (continued) • Modes of transferring data between hard drive and memory • DMA transfer mode • PIO transfer mode • IDE cabling methods • Parallel ATA (PATA) technology • Serial ATA (SATA) technology A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  9. IDE Cabling Methods A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  10. IDE Cabling Methods (continued) A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  11. IDE Cabling Methods (continued) A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  12. EIDE Interface Standards (continued) • Independent device timing • Drives larger than 137GB A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  13. Configuring EIDE Drives • EIDE standards support two IDE connections, a primary and a secondary • Each connection can support up to two IDE devices for a total of four devices on a system • Primary IDE channel, master device • Primary IDE channel, slave device • Secondary IDE channel, master device • Secondary IDE channel, slave device A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  14. Configuring EIDE Drives (continued) A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  15. Other Interface Standards • SCSI (small computer system interface) • USB • IEEE 1394 • Fibre Channel A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  16. How Hard Drives Work A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  17. How Hard Drives Work (continued) A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  18. Tracks and Sectors on the Drive A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  19. Tracks and Sectors on the Drive (continued) A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  20. Low-Level Formatting • Occurs at the factory • Process of writing sector and track markings on the disk • Expected to last for the life of the drive A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  21. Considerations When Purchasing a Hard Drive • Capacity • Spindle speed • Technology standard • Cache or buffer size • Average seek time • Match drive to motherboard A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  22. Communicating with the Hard Drive Controller A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  23. Calculating Drive Capacity on Older Drives • For drives less than 8.4 GB • Determined by number of heads, tracks, and sectors on the disk, each sector holding 512 bytes of data A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  24. Hard Drive Size Limitations A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  25. Methods of Retaining Backward Compatibility • CHS mode or normal mode (for drives less than 528 MB) • Large mode or ECHS mode (for drives between 504 MB and 8.4 GB) • LBA mode (for drives larger than 504 MB) • 33.8 GB limitation and 137 GB limitation • Device drivers A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  26. How a Hard Drive Is Logically Organized to Hold Data • Steps for preparing a hard drive to hold files • Low-level format (usually done at the factory) • Partitioning the hard drive • High-level format A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  27. Hard Drive Partitions and Logical Drives • Active partition • Primary partition • Extended partition • Logical partition A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  28. Partitions and Logical Drives A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  29. Hard Drive Partition Table A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  30. Choice of File Systems • FAT16 • Supported by all Windows systems • FAT32 (and VFAT) • Supported by Windows 95 Second Edition, Windows 98, Windows 2000, Windows XP • NTFS • Supported by Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP • Each logical drive has its own file system A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  31. How Many Logical Drives? A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  32. When to Partition a Drive • First install a new hard drive • Existing drive is giving errors • Suspect a virus has attacked the drive • Want to wipe a hard drive clean and install a new OS A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  33. Installing a Hard Drive • Set jumpers or DIP switches; physically install drive; attach power cord and data cable • Inform CMOS of new drive • If installing an OS on the drive, boot from OS setup CD (and skip next two steps) • If drive is not intended to hold an OS, use Fdisk or Disk Management to create partition(s) and divide extended partition into logical drives • For second drive, use Format command or Disk Management to high-level format each logical drive A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  34. Prepare for Installation • Read documentation • Plan drive configuration • Prepare work area and take precautions A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  35. Jumper Settings A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  36. Jumper Settings (continued) A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  37. Jumper Settings (continued) A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  38. Mounting the Drive in the Bay A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  39. Mounting the Drive in the Bay (continued) A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  40. Mounting the Drive in the Bay (continued) A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  41. Mounting the Drive in the Bay (continued) A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  42. Mounting the Drive in the Bay (continued) A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  43. Mounting the Drive in the Bay (continued) A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  44. Mounting the Drive in the Bay (continued) A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  45. Mounting the Drive in the Bay (continued) A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  46. If the Bay Is Too Large A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  47. Use CMOS to Change Hard Drive Settings A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  48. Setup for Large-Capacity Hard Drives A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  49. Setup for Large-Capacity Hard Drives (continued) A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

  50. Setup for Large-Capacity Hard Drives (continued) A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition