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CHAPTER 8 Global Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) and Treatments By: Ping Hu Johnson CAM Defined: Complementary and Alternative or Traditional?

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chapter 8

CHAPTER 8

Global Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) and Treatments

By: Ping Hu Johnson

slide2

CAM Defined: Complementary and Alternative or Traditional?

    • Refers to a set of medical and healthcare systems, practices, and products that are not part of that country’s tradition and are not integrated into the dominant healthcare system
slide3

CAM Defined: Complementary and Alternative or Traditional?

    • WHO defines traditional medicine as the “knowledge skills, and practices based on the theories, beliefs, and experiences indigenous to different cultures, whether explicable or not, used in the maintenance of health as well as in the prevention, diagnosis, improvement or treatment of physical and mental illness”
slide4

Alternative Medicine

  • Complementary Medicine
  • Traditional Medicine
  • CAM in the United States
    • Allopathic Medicine
    • 2005 Institute of Medicine’s Report on Complementary and Alternative Medicine in the United States
slide5

People who are more likely to use CAM:

    • Women
    • People with higher household income
    • Older adults
    • Ethnic minorities & low-income individuals
    • People with lower emotional role functioning and perceived general health
    • People who had been hospitalized in the last year
    • People with a holistic orientation to health
    • People with certain health problems
slide6

Reasons that people were most likely to use CAM:

    • They believe CAM therapies integrated with conventional therapies yield better results
    • They thought trying CAM therapies would be interesting
    • They were recommended by a medical professional
slide7

Reasons that people were most likely to use CAM:

    • They felt allopathic therapies were not effective
    • They felt CAM therapies would be more cost-effective
    • They believe CAM therapies can boost the immune system, treat cancer, and help them live longer
slide8

Mind-Body therapies, including prayer

  • Megavitamin Therapy
  • Biologically based therapies
  • Manipulative Therapies
  • Alternative Medical Systems
  • Energy Therapies
slide9

Nonvitamin, Nonmineral, Natural products

  • Deep Breathing Exercises
  • Participating in prayer
  • Meditation
  • Chiropractic care
  • Yoga
  • Massage
  • Diet-based therapies
slide10

CAM IN THE WORLD

  • Global Use of CAM
    • China
    • Ghana, Mali, Nigeria and Zambia
    • African countries
    • Europe
    • North America
    • Canada
    • Germany
    • United Kingdom
slide11

MAJOR FORMS OF CAM

    • Alternative Medical Systems
      • Ayurvedic Medicine
      • Homeopathic Medicine
      • Naturopathic Medicine
      • Traditional Chinese Medicine
slide12

MAJOR FORMS OF CAM

    • Mind-Body Medicine
    • Biologically Based therapies
    • Manipulative and Body-Based Methods
      • Chiropractic Medicine & Massage Therapy
      • Energy Medicine
      • Raiki and Therapeutic Touch
slide13

RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY

  • Research Areas of Special Interest:
    • Anxiety and depression
    • Cardiovascular diseases
    • Ethnomedicine
    • Immune modulation or enhancement
    • Inflammatory bowel disease
    • Irritable bowel syndrome
    • Insomnia
    • Liver
    • Obesity and metabolic syndrome
    • Respiratory diseases
slide14

LEGAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES

  • Development and implementation of regulations for:
    • Traditional medicine
    • Complementary medicine
    • Alternative medicine
    • Herbal medicine
slide15

LEGAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES

  • These challenges are related to the:
    • Regulatory status
    • Assessment of safety and efficacy
    • Quality control
    • Safety monitoring
    • Lack of knowledge by national drug regulatory authorities
slide16

FDA does require homeopathic remedies to meet certain legal standard for:

    • Strength
    • Quality
    • Purity
    • Packaging
  • Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA)
  • Ethical Responsibility
slide17

Refer to BOX 8-2

ARE YOU CONSIDERING USING CAM?

slide18

Refer to BOX 8-3

KEY ISSUESTO CONSIDER WHEN

SELECTING A CAM PRACTITIONER

slide19

Refer to BOX 8-4

IMPORTANT QUESTIONS TO ASK THE PRACTITIONER YOU SELECT

slide21

Ethical Issues Surrounding CAM Treatment and Research

  • Influences of Politics, Economics, Culture, and Religion
    • Politics – The Role of Government
    • The influence of politics and government is significant in the United States
slide22

The use of CAM worldwide makes it important for governments to:

    • Formulate national policy and regulation for the proper use
    • Establish regulatory mechanisms to control the safety and quality of products
    • Create awareness about safe and effective traditional medicine
    • Cultivate and conserve medicinal plants
slide23

Economics

  • Culture and Religion
    • Cultural beliefs significantly predict the use of traditional medicine practices
  • Developing and Developed Societies
    • The industrialized world uses traditional medicine and CAM as a choice
      • Well-educated
      • Well-informed