A social science view on sustainable water supply consumption and sanitation in the future
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A social science view on Sustainable Water Supply, Consumption and Sanitation in the Future. Traces of water: UKWIR, London, 2005. Prof. dr. ir. Gert Spaargaren, Environmental Policy Group Wageningen University. Themes to be discussed.

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A social science view on sustainable water supply consumption and sanitation in the future

A social science view on Sustainable Water Supply, Consumption and Sanitation in the Future

Traces of water: UKWIR, London, 2005

Prof. dr. ir. Gert Spaargaren,

Environmental Policy Group

Wageningen University


Themes to be discussed
Themes to be discussed

  • 1. Theoretical approach to Water Supply, Consumption and Sanitation (WSCS)

  • 2. WSS in Europe: 1840 - 2005,

  • 3. New WSCS configurations for SD: what do they look like?

  • 4. Who is going to organise these new configurations, and how?

  • 5. What are driving forces/ main obstacles?


1 theoretical perspective an infrastructural view of domestic water practices
1.Theoretical Perspective: an infrastructural view of domestic water practices

  • Sociological view: citizen-consumers as ‘situated’ agents instead of (rational, conscious, choice-making) individuals

  • DOMUS-project (EU: Lancaster, Lund, Wageningen; 1997 - 2003

    • In what ways do householders take part in or become involved in

    • new, more sustainable arrangement

    • for the handling of water and wastewater (energy and wastes)

    • at neighbourhood and household-levels?



2 short history of the water and wastewater systems in europe juuti and katko 2005
2. Short history of the water and wastewater systems in Europe (Juuti and Katko, 2005)

  • UK as ‘inventor’ of modern WSS systems

  • From 1840 onwards, ‘modern’ systems for WSS services have spread from UK all over Europe

  • first private, later (around 1900) publicly owned

  • end of 20th century, privatization of WSS in unprecedented scope and content

  • 21th century: UK model still the leading model?

  • Fragmentation, privatization, consumer empowerment


2 three paradigms of wss services since 1840
2. Three Paradigms of WSS services since +/- 1840 Europe (Juuti and Katko, 2005)

  • Quantitative and civil engineering

  • Qualitative and (sanitation)chemical engineering

  • since mid 1980’s: Environmental engineering and integrated management


Expert Europe (Juuti and Katko, 2005)

Systems

on

Energy

Water

Wastes

Societal Pressures to include ‘sustainable development’ considerations, criteria and performance- indicators into the organisation of the WSCS networks


3 new configurations to respond to sd pressures a o wfd eu
3. New configurations to Respond to Europe (Juuti and Katko, 2005)SD-pressures (a.o. WFD/ EU)

  • What do these WSCS-configurations look like?

    • in practice and in theory;

    • judged from Provider and Consumer perspective

    • with respect to both its technical and socio-cultural dimensions and performance


In practive ponton water recycling system
In practive: Ponton water-recycling system Europe (Juuti and Katko, 2005)

Re-use of bath and shower water for toilet flushing, washing machine, garden

Pay-back time: 9 years (Germany)


Vacuum toilets and biogas system for cooking Europe (Juuti and Katko, 2005)


Germany, Okohaus, Freiburg: Eco-high-tech Europe (Juuti and Katko, 2005)


Freiburg = ‘normal appartments’ Europe (Juuti and Katko, 2005)



Sweden: Europe (Juuti and Katko, 2005)

Water sewage system at neighbourhood level


3 what do the new configurations look like from a theoretical point of view
3. What do the new configurations look like? Europe (Juuti and Katko, 2005)From a theoretical point of view

Do they resemble the DeSaR-technologies of

the 1970’s- style and form?

  • Small is beautiful/ alternative way of life (socially off..)

  • Stand alone devices/ off grid

  • Eco-projects as ‘gated communities’

  • Low-tech solutions preferred/ soft technologies

  • Community driven, bottom-up development


3 what do the new configurations look like from a theoretical point of view1
3. What do the new configurations look like? Europe (Juuti and Katko, 2005)From a theoretical point of view

(OR:)

do they take the form of ‘Modernized Mixtures’ = combining the best of both central and decentral options

  • Grid-connected decentral options

  • High-tech next to low-tech solutions in one system

  • Integrated into the mainstream built-environment

  • Living up to present demands of high CCC-levels/ compatible with ‘modern life (styles)’

  • Developed by (utility) companies/ providers in creative dialogue with end-users as co-producing civilians



MM Europe (Juuti and Katko, 2005)

D

C

Modernised Mixtures (MM) as alternative to either Centralised (C) or Decentralised (D) options for sustainable (waste) water systems


3 research on new configurations looking for technological and socio cultural projects of mm type
3. Research on new configurations: looking for technological and socio-cultural projects of MM-type

  • MISTRA PROJECT SWEDEN

  • EEAWAG RESEARCH ZURICH

  • WUR RESEARCH

  • GERMAN NETWORKS

  • UK…..


3 some trends in recent wscs research
3. Some trends in recent WSCS- research and socio-cultural projects of MM-type

  • Counterposing the ‘DeSaR’ paradigm and the Centralised Systems paradigm no longer fruitful: MM as alternative, emerging concept?

  • Sustainable WSCS-pilots to be developed in different urban settings (new/old; high/low density) at different socio-technical scales

  • Sustainable WSCS are conceived of primarily in technical terms, so there is a recognized need to develop a social/symbolic story-line for WSCS


4 who is going to organise the new configurations preliminary results of eet research project wur

Succes-stories of end-users constructing new networks of actors, including municipalities, water-boards, builders/ constructors, planners, and producers

Germany; Freiburg Okohaus

The Netherlands; Eva Lanxmeer; Kersetuin; Groene Dak etc.

Sweden: Stockholm, Mistra cases

Stories of partly or completely failed pilot-projects, initiated by (combinations of) Providers (and researchers)

Stroomdal Emmen; Wageningen Rustenburg; Swichum village; Leidsche Rijn Utrecht; Wageningen Noord-West etc.

4. Who is going to organise the new configurations?(Preliminary results of EET-research project WUR)


4 actors, including municipalities, water-boards, builders/ constructors, planners, and producers. Who is going to organise the new configurations, and how?Research on the Management of the ‘Blue Transition’ (KSI-Bsik):

HYPOTHESIS/ discussion statement

  • “Sustainable niche projects of MM-type will NOT lead to regime-change over the next 15 years, ……unless

  • a meaningful link can be established between the new WSCS-technologies as being applied in provider-dominated networks on the one hand and citizen-consumers as end-users and co-producers of WSCS services on the other”


4 this story line has to be derived from the general direction of the blue transition

1970 WATER- PARADIGM 2000 actors, including municipalities, water-boards, builders/ constructors, planners, and producers

  • From:

  • DOING AWAY WITH =

  • making invisible

  • removing as fast as possible

  • detach from sensory

  • experience and perceptions

  • of citizen-consumers

  • To:

  • RETAIN AND USE =

  • make visible

  • keep and use as long as possible

  • reconnect to sensory experiences

  • and daily (consumption) routines

  • of citizen consumers

4. This ‘story-line’ has to be derived from the general direction of the ‘blue transition’


5 driving forces and main obstacles
5. Driving forces and main obstacles actors, including municipalities, water-boards, builders/ constructors, planners, and producers

  • WFD debate and policies in Europe

  • Hightened ‘water-awareness’ world-wide?

  • Integrated approach: connecting different utility systems and services

  • Increasing costs of ‘Serving and Being Served’

    • energy bills: sharp increase (300 euro next year)

    • sewage system renewal: extra costs (50% increase)

    • water quantity policies broadened (doubling of costs)

    • water quality services more expensive (doubling of price ?)


5 driving forces and main obstacles1
5. Driving forces and main obstacles actors, including municipalities, water-boards, builders/ constructors, planners, and producers

Consumers unwilling to pay for ‘the internalization of external costs?

WSS-providers using this as an argument/ excuse for not being pro-active in this field?

  • WSCS-services have been hidden away for too long and gained the status of basic/ normal rights

    (Water-services in between Potatoes and Cars?)


Thank you for your attention

THANK actors, including municipalities, water-boards, builders/ constructors, planners, and producersYOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION

Traces of water: UKWIR, London, 2005

Prof. dr. ir. Gert Spaargaren,

Environmental Policy Group

Wageningen University


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